Chapter 2. Principles of Motivation and Adherence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2. Principles of Motivation and Adherence Deck (22)
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1

Adherence

The extent to which people stick with their plans or treatment recommendations. Exercise adherence is the extent to which people follow, or stick to an exercise program.

2

Motivation

The psychological drive that gives purpose and direction to behavior.

3

Transtheoretical Model of Behavioral Change (TTM)

A theory of behavior that examines one's readiness to change and identifies five stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. Also called stages-of-change model.

4

Self-efficacy

A belief in one's own capabilities to successfully engage in a physical activity program.

5

Social Support Strategies

- Find an enjoyable and reliable exercise partner. If partners are not readily available in the exercise setting, look to community agencies or programs offered by organizations such as churches, social groups, or university-based fitness programs.
- Ask friends and family members to be encouraging and positive about the exercise program. Find out if they have a similar interest in becoming more physically active and invite them to join the program.
- Ask for reminders from friends and family members about physical-activity goals or appointments.
- Set up fun "contests" with a friend as well as rewards based upon meeting a process goal, such as attending a water aerobics class 10 times without absence. (The friend's goal does not have to be exercise-related, although mutual support for exercise is beneficial to everyone. The main objective is to use accountability to someone else as a motivational tool for encouraging more consistent exercise participation.)
- Add a social element to the exercise program. For example, arrive at a class a little early if it affords the opportunity to chat with class members.
- Find an enjoyable activity that is based on being physically active within a group or club, such as dancing, bowling or hiking.

6

Social Support Strategies

- Find an enjoyable and reliable exercise partner. If partners are not readily available in the exercise setting, look to community agencies or programs offered by organizations such as churches, social groups, or university-based fitness programs.
- Ask friends and family members to be encouraging and positive about the exercise program. Find out if they have a similar interest in becoming more physically active and invite them to join the program.
- Ask for reminders from friends and family members about physical-activity goals or appointments.
- Set up fun "contests" with a friend as well as rewards based upon meeting a process goal, such as attending a water aerobics class 10 times without absence. (The friend's goal does not have to be exercise-related, although mutual support for exercise is beneficial to everyone. The main objective is to use accountability to someone else as a motivational tool for encouraging more consistent exercise participation.)
- Add a social element to the exercise program. For example, arrive at a class a little early if it affords the opportunity to chat with class members.
- Find an enjoyable activity that is based on being physically active within a group or club, such as dancing, bowling or hiking.

7

Helping Clients Deal with Negative Social Influences

- Schedule their contact with unsupportive people after they exercise for the day.
- Try to balance out time with unsupportive people people by increasing time with supportive ones.
- Set clear limits for how much time they will spend with unsupportive people, or avoid such contact all together.
- Mentally prepare to respond to negative comments.
- Mentally review why their exercise program is important prior to spending time with unsupportive peers.
- Explain to an unsupportive person why exercise is important, and ask for the person's encouragement. If the person is willing to try to be more supportive, the client should say specifically what the client would and would not want the person to do. (For example, "it would help me a lot if you wouldn't say, 'Are you off to the gym again?' each time I leave the apartment for a little while. But asking how I am progressing in my program every now and then would be nice."

8

Feedback

Provide clients with information about their progress and performance. Can either be intrinsic or extrinsic.
- Intrinsic: Information that the clients provide themselves based on their own sensory systems (what they feel, see or hear)
- Extrinsic: Reinforcement, error correction and encouragement from personal trainer.
*Knowledge of Results: The type of feedback that provides client with information on progress.

9

Relapse

In behavior change, the return of an original problem after many relapses (slips, mistakes) have occurred.

10

Social Support

The perception of comfort, caring, esteem, or help an individual receives from other people.

11

High-Risk Situations

Be prepared for common relapse-inducing events before they occur. Identify clients most at risk for program relapse (those with poor time-management skills, lack of social support, busy schedules). Provide extra education, support and guidance.

12

Factors Influencing Exercise Participation and Adherence

- Personal Attributes
- Environmental Factors
- Physical-Activity Factors

13

Personal Attributes

- Demographic Variables: Adherence to physical-activity programs has proven to be consistently related to education, income, age and gender. Lower levels of activity are seen with increasing age, fewer years of education, and low income.
- Health Status: Those with chronic illness (heart disease, diabetes...) tend to exercise less.
- Activity History: Arguably the most important and influential person attribute. The relationship between past participation and current is consistent across gender, obesity and coronary heart disease status.
- Psychological Traits: The trait of self-motivation, which is reflective of one's ability to set goals, monitor progress, and self-reinforce has been shown to have a positive relationship with physical-activity adherence.
- Knowledge, Attitude and Beliefs: Modifying the way an individual thinks and feels about exercise has been shown to influence their intentions regarding being active. *Locus of Control: Personal control over health outcomes. *Perceived Barriers: Lack of time, consistently demonstrates a negative relationship with program adherence.

14

Factors Influencing Exercise Participation and Adherence

- Personal Attributes
- Environmental Factors
- Physical-Activity Factors

15

Environmental Factors

- Access to Facilities: When fitness facilities are conveniently located near a person's home or work, they are more likely to adhere to the program.
- Time: The perception of not having enough time to exercise is likely a reflection of not being interested in or enjoying the activity. Personal trainers must change this perception through goal setting, time management, and prioritizing.
- Social Support: If a client lacks support, it is critical that the personal trainer is proactive in creating and establishing a support network.

16

Factors Influencing Exercise Participation and Adherence

- Personal Attributes
- Environmental Factors
- Physical-Activity Factors

17

Physical-Activity Factors

- Intensity: The drop-out rate of vigorous-intensity workouts is twice as high as moderate-intensity workouts.
- Injury: The higher the level of physical activity, the higher the level of risk for injury. Injured clients can participate in modified programs.

18

Leadership Qualities

- Professionalism: Clean, neat, and non-threatening.
- Punctuality
- Preparedness

19

Program Design

A personal trainer must be able to design a program with regard to each client's preferences, schedule, experience, apprehension, and constraints.

20

Role Clarity

Written expectations of both the client and trainer.

21

Goal Setting

- Avoid setting too many goals
- Avoid setting negative goals: Think about achievement, not avoidance.
- Set short-term and long-term goals
- Revisit goals on a regular basis

22

Contracts/Agreements

Create clarity. Define what the client should expect, what the program entails, and the rationale for the program design.