Chapter 1. Role and Scope of Practice for the Personal Trainer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1. Role and Scope of Practice for the Personal Trainer Deck (26)
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Benefits of regular physical activity (from 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, U.S.
Department of Health & Human Services)

• Regular physical activity reduces the risk of many adverse health outcomes.
• Some physical activity is better than none.
• For most health outcomes, additional benefits occur as the amount of physical
activity increases through higher intensity, greater frequency, and/or longer
• Most health benefits occur with at least 150 minutes a week of moderateintensity
physical activity, such as brisk walking. Additional benefits occur with more physical activity
• Both aerobic (endurance) and muscle-strengthening (resistance) physical activity are
• Health benefits occur for children and adolescents, young and middle-aged adults,
older adults, and those in every studied racial and ethnic group.
• The health benefits of physical activity occur for people with disabilities.
• The benefits of physical activity far outweigh the possibility of adverse outcomes.


Health Benefits Associated With Regular Physical Activity (Children and Adolescents)

Strong evidence:
Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
Improved bone health
Improved cardiovascular and metabolic health biomarkers
Favorable body composition

Moderate evidence
Reduced symptoms of depression


Health Benefits Associated With Regular Physical Activity (Adults and Seniors)

Strong evidence:
Lower risk of early death
Lower risk of stroke
Lower risk of high blood pressure
Lower risk of adverse blood lipid profile
Lower risk of type 2 diabetes
Lower risk of metabolic syndrome
Lower risk of colon cancer
Lower risk of breast cancer
Prevention of weight gain
Weight loss, particularly when combined with lower calorie intake
Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness
Prevention of falls
Reduced symptoms of depression
Better cognitive function (for older adults)

Moderate to strong evidence:
Better functional health
Reduced abdominal obesity

Moderate evidence:
Lower risk of hip fracture
Lower risk of lung cancer
Lower risk of endometrial cancer
Weight maintenance after weight loss
Increased bone density
Improved sleep quality


Specialty areas within allied healthcare

Primary care physician
M.D. specialist
Advanced registered nurse practitioner

- Registered dietitian
Clinical weight-loss program

Physical therapist
Occupational therapist
Cardiac rehabilitation professional
Pulmonary rehabilitation
Athletic trainer

Social worker
Support groups

Advanced fitness professionals (Advanced
Health & Fitness Specialist and certified Health Coach)
Personal trainer
Group fitness instructor

- Chiropractor
- Acupuncturist
- Massage therapist


Personal Fitness Trainers DO NOT...

Prescribe diets or recommend specific supplements
Treat injury or disease
Monitor progress for medically referred clients
Work with patients


Personal Fitness Trainers DO...

• Receiveexercise, health,or nutrition guidelinesfrom a physician,
physical therapist, registered dietitian, etc.
• Follow nationalconsensus guidelinesforexercise programming
for medical disorders
• Screen forexerciselimitations
• Identify potential riskfactorsthrough screening
• Referclientsto an appropriate allied health professionalor
medical practitioner
Design exercise programs
• Referclientsto an appropriate allied health professionalor
medical practitioner for an exercise prescription
Provide general information on healthyeating, according tothe
MyPlate Food Guidance System
• Referclientsto a dietitian or nutritionist for a specific diet plan
• Referclientsto an appropriate allied health professionalor
medical practitioner for treatment
• Useexerciseto help improveoverall health
• Help clientsfollow physician or therapist advice
• Document progress
• Report progressto an appropriate allied health professionalor
medical practitioner
• Follow physician, therapist,or dietitian recommendations
• Design an exercise program once a client has been released
from rehabilitation
• Coach
• Provide general information
• Referclientsto a qualified counseloror therapist
• Work with clients


ACE Certified Personal Trainers scope of practice

• Developing and implementing exercise programs that are safe, effective, and appropriate for individuals
who are apparently healthy or have medical clearance to exercise
• Conducting health-history interviews and stratifying risk for cardiovascular disease with clients in order to
determine the need for referral and identify contraindications for exercise
• Administering appropriate fitness assessments based on the client’s health history, current fitness,
lifestyle factors, and goals utilizing research-proven and published protocols
• Assisting clients in setting and achieving realistic fitness goals
• Teaching correct exercise methods and progressions through demonstration, explanation, and proper
cueing and spotting techniques
• Empowering individuals to begin and adhere to their exercise programs using guidance, support,
motivation, lapse-prevention strategies, and effective feedback
• Designing structured exercise programs for one-on-one and small-group personal training
• Educating clients about fitness- and health-related topics to help them in adopting healthful behaviors
that facilitate exercise program success
• Protecting client confidentiality according to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
(HIPAA) and related regional and national laws
• Always acting with professionalism, respect, and integrity
• Recognizing what is within the scope of practice and always referring clients to other healthcare
professionals when appropriate
• Being prepared for emergency situations and responding appropriately when they occur


The ACE Personal Trainer exam is broken into the following Domains:

• Client Interviews and Assessments – 31%
• Program Design and Implementation – 33%
• Progression and Modifications – 19%
• Professional Conduct, Safety, and Risk Management – 17%


The primary purpose of professional certification programs

protect the public
from harm (e.g., physical, emotional, psychological, or financial)


Potential referral sources include the following:

• Mind/body instructors(e.g., yoga, Pilates,taichi, and qigong)
• Smoking-cessation programs
• Aquaticexercise programs
• Support groups (e.g., cardiac rehabilitation, cancer survivors, and Overeaters Anonymous)
• Massage therapists



ACE certified Professionals will endeavor to:
• Provide safe and effective instruction
• Provide equal and fair treatment to all clients/participants
• Stay up-to-date on the latest health and fitness research and
- understand its practical application
• Maintain current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification
and knowledge of first-aid services
• Comply with all applicable business, employment, and intellectual
property laws
• Maintain the confidentiality of all client information
• Refer clients to more qualified health or medical professionals
when appropriate
• Uphold and enhance public appreciation and trust for the health and fitness industry
• Establish and maintain clear professional boundaries



A term to describe an excessive amount of weight for a given height, using height-to-weight ratios.



Doing or requiring much sitting; minimal activity.



An excessive accumulation of body fat. Usually defined as more than 20% above ideal weight, or over 25% body fat for men and over 32% body fat for women; also can be defined as a body mass index of >30kg/m2 or a waist girth of >40 inches (102 cm) in men and >35 inches (89 cm) in women.


Physical therapist

A rehabilitation expert specializing in treatments that help restore function, improve mobility, relieve pain, and prevent or limit permanent physical disabilities in patients of all ages suffering from medical problems, injuries, diseases, disabilities, or other health-related conditions.


Occupational therapist

A rehabilitation expert specializing in treatments that help people who suffer from mentally, physically, developmentally, or emotionally disabling conditions to develop, recover, or maintain daily living and work skills that include improving basic motor functions and reasoning abilities.


Athletic trainer

A healthcare professional who collaborates with physicians and specializes in providing immediate intervention when injuries occur and helping athletes and clients in the prevention, assessment, treatment and rehabilitation of emergency, acute, and chronic medical conditions involving injury, impairment, functional limitations, and disabilities.


Registered dietitian

A food and nutrition expert that has met the following criteria: completed a minimum of a bachelor's degree at a U.S. accredited university, or other college coursework approved by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education (CADE); completed a CADE- accredited supervised practice program; passed a national examination; and completed continuing education requirements to maintain registration.


Scope of practice

The range and limit of responsibilities normally associated with a specific job or profession.


Body fat

A component of the body, the primary role of which is to store energy for later use.


Body composition

The makeup of the body in terms of the relative percentage of fat-free mass and body fat.



A relationship marked by mutual understanding and trust.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

A procedure to support and maintain breathing and circulation for a person who has stopped breathing (respiratory arrest) and/or whose heart has stopped (cardiac arrest).


Automated external defibrillator (AED)

A portable electronic device used to restore normal heart rhythms in victims of sudden cardiac arrest.


Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

Enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1996, HIPAA requires the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to establish national standards for electronic health care information to facilitate efficient and secure exchange of private health data. The Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information ("Privacy Rule"), issued by the HHS, addresses the use and disclosure of individuals' health information-called "protected health information"- by providing federal protections and giving patients an array of rights with respect to personal health information while permitting the disclosure of information needed for patient care and other important purposes.



Any condition that renders some particular movement, activity, or treatment improper or undesirable.