Movement away from the midline of the body.
The uptake of nutrients across a tissue or membrane by the gastrointestinal tract.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
The range of intake for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing intakes of essential nutrients.
Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)
An important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. Its main use is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle to be oxidized for energy production. This compound forms the common entry point into the Kreb’s cycle for the oxidation of carbohydrate and fat.
A white crystalline neurotransmitter and derivation of choline that is released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems and is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the body.
Acromioclavicular (A/C) joint
The junction of the acromion process of the scapula with the distal clavicle.
Thin contractile protein in a myofibril.
Active isolated stretching (AIS)
A stretching technique modeled after traditional strength-trianing workouts. Stretches are held very briefly in sets of a specified number of repetitions, with a goal of isolating an individual muscle in each set.
Activities of daily living (ADL)
Activities normally performed for hygiene, bathing, household chores, walking, shopping, and similar activities.
Movement toward the midline of the body.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
One of the chemical by-products of the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during muscle contraction
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)
Substance found in muscle cells that participates in energy released by working muscle.
Adenosine trisphosphate (ATP)
A high-energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function. produced both aerobically and anaerobically and stored in the body.
Adequate intake (AI)
A recommended nutrient intake level that, based on research, appears to be sufficient for good health.
A fat cell.
Fatty tissue; connective tissue made up of fat cells.
Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)
A hormone released by the pituitary gland that affects various important bodily functions; controls the secretion in the adrenal gland of hormones that influence the metabolism of carbohydrates, sodium, and potassium; also controls the rate at which substance are exchanged between the blood and tissues.
In the presence of oxygen.
A metabolic pathway that requires oxygen to facilitate the use of glycogen for energy (ATP)
The pressure in the aorta and pulmonary trunk, respectively, that the left and right ventricles of the heart must overcome to eject blood.
The muscle directly responsible for observed movement; also called the prime mover.
One of two main hormones released by the adrenal cortex; plays a role in limiting sodium excretion in the urine.
The principle of muscle contraction that states that when a motor unit is activated, all of the muscle fibers will maximally contract.
A substance that can cause an allergic reaction by stimulating type-1 hypersensitivity in atopic individuals.
Endocrine cell in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for synthesizing and secreting the hormone glucagon, which elevates the glucose levels in the blood
Spherical extensions of the respiratory bronchioles and the primary sites of gas exchange with the blood
An age-related, progressive disease characterized by death of nerve cells in the brain leading to a loss of cognitive function; the cause of the nerve cell death is unknown.
The absence of menstruation.
Nitrogen-containing compounds that are the building blocks of protein.
Without the presence of oxygen
The metabolic pathway that uses glucose for energy production without requiring oxygen. Sometimes referred to as the lactic acid system or anaerobic glucose system, it produces lactic acid as a by-product.
Anaerobic threshold (AT)
The point during high-intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominates. Also called lactate threshold.
Standing erect with the feet and palms facing forward.
related to developing masculine characteristics associated with manhood.
A reduction in the number of red blood cells and/ or quantity of hemoglobin per volume of blood below normal values.
A common symptom of coronary artery disease characterized by chest pain, tightness, or radiating pain resulting from a lack of blood flow to the heart muscle.
An eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain body weight of at least 85% of expected weight; intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat; body-image disturbance, including a disproportionate influence of body weight on self-evaluation; in women, the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual periods.
The muscle that acts in opposition to the contraction produced by an agonist (prime mover) muscle.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland during exercise; reduces urinary excretion of water and prevents dehydration.
A substance that prevents or repairs oxidative damage; includes vitamins C and E, some carotenoids, selenium, ubiquinones, and bioflavonoids.
The end point of the gastrointestinal tract through which semisolid waste is passed from the body.
A state of uneasiness and apprehension; occurs in some mental disorders.
The major artery of the cardiovascular system; arises from the left ventricle of the heart.
A white, flattened, tending us expansion that mainly serves to connect a muscle to the parts that it moves.
An external force acting on a system (body or body segment).
Arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 difference)
The difference in oxygen content between arterial and mixed venous blood, which reflects the amount of oxygen removed by the whole body.
Small-diameter blood vessels that extend and branch out from an artery and lead to capillaries; the primary site of vascular resistance.
A chronic disease in which thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls result in impaired blood circulation; develope with aging, and in hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and other conditions.
A blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to vital organs and the extremities.
Inflammation of a joint; a state characterized by the inflammation of joints.
A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway that affects genetically susceptible individuals in response to various environmental triggers such as allergens, viral infection,exercise, cold, and stress.
A specific form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the accumulation of fatty material on the inner walls of the arteries, causing them to harden, thicken, and lose elasticity.
The two upper chamber of the heart (right and left atrium)
Atrioventricular node (AV node)
The specialized mass of conducting cells in the heart located at the atrioventricular junction.
A reduction in muscle size (muscle wasting) due to inactivity or immobilization.
An automatic reflex relaxation caused by stimulation of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO).
Autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary body functions, including the activity of the cardiac muscle, smooth muscles, and glands. It has two division: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
Local control of blood distribution (through vasodilation) in response to a tissue’s changing metabolic needs.
The bones of the head, neck, and trunk.
Axis of rotation
The imaginary line or point about which an object, such as a joint, rotates.
A nerve fiber that conducts a nerve impulse away from the neuron cell body; efferent nerve fiber.
The ability to maintain the body’s position over its base of support within stability limits, both statically and dynamically.
Dynamic stretching characterized by rhythmic bobbing or bouncing motions representing relatively high-force, short-duration movements.
Base of support (BOS)
The areas of contact between the feet and their supporting surface and the area between the feet.
Endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for synthesizing and secreting the hormone insulin, which lowers the glucose levels in the blood.
Metabolic pathway involving the breakdown of fatty acids (digested dietary fat) for the production of ATP.
A greenish-yellow or brownish emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion; produced in and secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine.
Binge eating disorder (BED)
An eating disorder characterized by frequent binge eating (without purging) and feelings of being out of control when eating.
The degree to which a substance can be absorbed and efficiently utilized by the body.
The mechanics of biological and muscular activity.
The makeup of the body in terms of the relative percentage of fat-free mass and body fat.
Body mass index (BMI)
A relative measure of body height to body weight used to determine level of weight, from underweight to extreme obesity.
A food and salvia digestive mix that is swallowed and then moved through the digestive tract.
Bone mineral density (BMD)
A measure of the amount of minerals (mainly calcium) contained in a certain volume of bone.
The two large branches of the trachea leading into the lungs.
The smallest tube that supply air to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.
The site of nutrient absorption in the small intestines.
Bulimia nervosa (BN)
An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrolled binge eating; recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior such as self-induced vomiting, laxative misuse, diuretics, or enemas (purging type), or fasting and/ or excessive exercise (non-purging type); episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors occur at least twice per week for three months; self-evaluation is heavily influenced by body shape and weight; and the episodes do not occur exclusively with episodes of anorexia.
An element (such as certain minerals) that animals require in large amounts.
A measurement of the amount of energy in a food available after digestion. The amount of energy needed to increase 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius. Also called a kilocalorie.
The smallest blood vessels that supply blood to the tissues, and the site of all gas and nutrient exchange in the cardiovascular system. They connect the arterial and venous systems.
The body’s preferred energy source. Dietary sources include sugars (simple) and grains, rice, potatoes, and beans (complex). Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver and is transported in the blood as glucose.
Up to a week-long regimen of manipulating intensity of training and carbohydrates intake to achieve maximum glycogen storage for an endurance event.
Cardiac accelerator nerves
Part of the sympathetic nervous system that stimulates the SA node to increase heart rate.
The period from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next heartbeat; the systolic and diastolic phase and the interval in between.
The amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute; usually expressed in liters of blood per minute.
Site at the upper portion of the stomach; prevents food and stomach acid from splashing back into the esophagus from the stomach; also called the esophageal sphincter.
The capacity of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles and tissue during sustained exercise and to remove metabolic waste products that would result in fatigue; the ability to perform large muscle movements over a sustained period; also called cardiovascular endurance.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
A general term for any disease of the heart, blood vessels, or circulation.
Metabolic pathways that break down molecules into smaller units and release energy.
Hormone (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine) released as part of the sympathetic response to exercise.
The enveloping capsule of a cell composed of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Center of gravity (COG)
Center of mass
Center of mass (COM)
The point around which all weight is evenly distributed; also called center of gravity.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
A form of digestion that involves the addition of enzymes that break down nutrients.
A fatlike substance found in the blood and body tissues and in certain foods. Can accumulate in the arteries and lead to a narrowing of the vessels (atherosclerosis ).
An increase in muscle size that result from repeated long-term resistance training.
A large lipoprotein particle that transfers fat from food from the small intestines to the liver and adipose tissue.
The semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum.
A biplanar movement involving the sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction.
The mutual coordination of antagonist muscles (such as flexors and extensors) to maintain a position.
A substance that needs to be present along with an enzyme for a chemical reaction to occur.
The main constituent of connective tissue, such as ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
The lower portion of the large intestine, the primary function of which is to absorb water; its segments are the ascending colon, the transverse colon, and the sigmoid colon.
A food that contains all of the essential amino acids. Eggs, soy, and most meats and dairy products are considered complete proteins.
A long chain of sugar that takes more time to digest than a simple carbohydrate
A type of isotonic muscle contraction in which the muscle develops tension and shortens when stimulated.
The direct flow of heat through a material resulting from physical contact.
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Inability of the heart to pump blood at a sufficient rate to meet the metabolic demand, or the ability to do so only when the cardiac filling pressures are abnormally high, frequently resulting in lung congestion”
The tissue that binds together and supports various structures of the body. Ligaments and tendons are connective tissues.
The transfer of heat through surrounding air or water molecules.
When the muscle of the trunk function in harmony to stabilize the spine and pelvis to provide a solid foundation for movement in the extremities. A key component necessary for successful performance of most gross motor activities.
The cycle of lactate-to-glucose between the muscle and the liver.
Coroary heart disease (CHD)
The major form of cardiovascular disease; results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue; also called coronary artery disease (CAD).
Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. Also called the frontal plane.
Compact, dense bone that is found in the shafts of long bones and the vertebral endplates.
A hormone that is often referred to as the “stress hormone,” as it is involved in the response to stress. It increases blood pressure and blood glucose levels and has an immunosuppressive action.
Creatine phosphate (CP)
A storage form of high-energy phosphate in muscle cells that can be used to immediately resynthesize adenosine trisphosphate (ATP).
The tendency of connective tissue to slowly deform permanently (or lengthen) under the influence of applied stress such as a stretching force.
The zigzag structure of collagen, which gradually straightens out when the tissue is subjected to high tensile forces.
A method of physical training in which a variety of exercises and change in body positions or modes of exercise are utilized to positively affect compliance and motivation, and also stimulate additional strength gains or reduce injury risk.
Anatomical term meaning internal; that is, located further beneath the body surface than the superficial structures.
The process of losing body water; when severe can cause serious, life-threatening consequences.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Soreness that occurs 24 to 48 hours after strenuous exercise, the exact cause of which is unknown.
The portion of a nerve fiber that transmits impulses toward a nerve cell body; receptive portion of a nerve cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A large, double-stranded, helical molecule that is the carrier of genetic information.
To decrease the electrical potential across a membrane, as when the inside of a neuron becomes less negative to the outside.
- The action of lowering a muscle or bone, or movement in an inferior or downward direction. 2. A condition of general emotional dejection and withdrawal; sadness greater and more prolonged than that warranted by any objective reason.
A disease of carbohydrate metabolism in which an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin results in an inability to metabolize carbohydrates normally.
The shaft of a long bone
The period of filling of the heart between contractions; resting phase of the heart.
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP)
The pressure in the arteries during the relaxation phase (diastole) of the cardiac cycle; indicative of total peripheral resistance.
Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan An eating plan designed to reduce blood pressure; also serves as an overall healthy way of eating that can be adopted by nearly anyone; may also lower risk of coronary heart disease.
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
A generic term used to refer to three types of nutrient reference value: Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
The process of breaking down food into small enough units for absorption.
Farthest from the midline of the body, or from the point of origin of a muscle.
Medication that produces an increase in urine volume and sodium excretion.
Movement of the foot up toward the shin.
The top portion of the small intestine.
Muscle that actively contribute to core stability.
Type of stretching that involves taking the joints through their ranges of motion while continuously moving. Often beneficial in warming up for a particular sport or activity that involves the same joint movements.
A condition characterized by abnormal blood lipid profiles; may include elevated cholesterol, triglyceride, or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and/ or low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
A type of isotonic muscle contraction in which the muscle lengthens against a resistance when it is stimulated; sometimes called “negative work” or “negative reps”
Swelling resulting from an excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the tissue of the body.
Oxygenated fatty acids that the body uses to signal cellular responses; includes omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
The percentage of the total volume of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle durning the systolic contraction of the heart.
A protein, similar to collagen, found in connective tissue that has elastic properties.
A mineral that exists as a charged ion in the body and that is extremely important for normal cellular function.
The action of raising a muscle or bone, or a movement in a superior or upward direction.
Understanding what another person is experiencing from his or her perspective.
An obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by the gradual destruction of lung alveoli and the surrounding connective tissue, in addition to airway inflammation, leading to reduced ability to effectively inhale and exhale.
Brain swelling; can result from hyponatremia.
A layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers and contains capillaries, nerves, and lymphatics.
A soft tissue lining the internal surface of the diaphysis on a long bone.
A protein that speeds up a specific chemical reaction.
The cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid or food from entering it during the act of swallowing.
A layer of connective tissue that encloses the entire muscle and is continuous with fascia and other connective-tissue wrappings of muscle, including the endomysium and perimysium.
A hormone released as part of the sympathetic response to exercise; also called adrenaline.
Cartilaginous layer between the head and shaft of a long bone where bone growth occurs. Also called a growth plate.
The end of a long bone, usually wider than the shaft (plural epiphysis).
Tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines the body cavities, ducts and vessels.
The food pipe; the conduit from the mouth to the stomach.
Essential amino acids
Eight to 10 of the 23 different amino acids needed to make proteins. Called essential because the body cannot manufacture them; they must be obtained from the diet.
Essential fatty acids
Fatty acids that the body needs but cannot synthesize; includes linolenic (omega-3) and linolenic (omega-6) fatty acids.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
An adequate intake in 50% of an age and gender specific group.
Benefits of regular exercise
improved cardiovascular funtion , lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure , decreased body weight and fat mass improved lipid profile, improved glucose control, decresed anxiety and depression, feeling of well being decresed cancer and decresed incidence of osteoporosis
the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons
process of forming new sugar from proteins and fats
heart rate (HR)
total # of times the heart contracts in one minute, increases with work-rate during exercise
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
high blood pressure
to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel. e.g. when a body part falls asleep
when a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more. e.g. feel the burn
lean body mass
structural and functional elements in cells, body water, muscle, bones, and other body organs - basically EVERYTHING THAT ISN’T FAT
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP adenosine for muscle contraction) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
is the ability of a muscle or mucle group to exert force.Muscle endurence is assessed by measuring the duration a muscle can exert force without fatique e.g. walking up stairs and shoveling snow
is the maximal force that the muscle or muscle group can exert during a contraction
another name for heart attack
overfatness to the point of injuring health. Obesity is often defined as 20 percent or more above the appropriate weight for height
increase in human muscle due to aerobic training
4 compartments of the lower limb
- Superficial posterior compartment (gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris)
- Deep posterior compartment (posterior tibialis, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus)
- Lateral compartment – outside of the leg (peroneus longus, peroneus brevis)
- Anterior compartment (anterior tibialis, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus.
1, 2, 3 are plantarflexion
4 is dorsiflexion
4 muscles of the rotator cuff
Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis (underneath the scapula)
Biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis
Elbow joint in what kind of joint?
What are the main movements of the elbow? Hinge joint. Main movement is flexion & extension
Pronator quadratus, pronator teres
Hamstring muscles that flex the knee
Biceps femoris, semiteninosus, semimembranosus
How many of each vertebrae are there?
7 cervical vertebrae (anterior curve)
12 thoracic vertebrae (kyphotic curve)
5 lumbar vertebrae (anterior curve
Connects bone to bone
Major muscles that act at the scapula (shoulder girdle)
Trapezius, rhomboids (major and minor), levator scapulae, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor
Major muscles that act at the spine (trunk)
Rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, erector spinae
Major muscles that rotate the spine
Internal oblique (rotation to the same side – ipsilateral), external oblique (rotation to the opposite side – contralateral)
Muscles that abduct (protract) the scapula
Pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
Muscles that abduct the hip
Tensor fascia latae, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, gluteus maximus (superior fibers), sartorius
Muscles that abduct the shoulder
Muscles that adduct (retract) the scapula
Trapezius (lower), rhomboids (major & minor)
Muscles that adduct the hip
Adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, pectineus, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis
Muscles that adduct the shoulder
Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, subscapularis, triceps brachii (long head)
Muscles that depress the scapula
Trapezius (lower), pectoralis minor
Muscles that elevate the scapula
Trapezius (upper), levator scapulae, rhomboids (major & minor)
Muscles that extend the hip
Gluteus maximus, hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus)
Muscles that extend the shoulder
Latissimus dorsi, teres major, deltoid (posterior), subscapularis, triceps brachii (long head)
Muscles that extend the spine
Erector spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis)
Muscles that externally rotate the hip
Gluteus maximus, deep external rotators, iliopsoas, pectinues, sartorius
Muscles that externally rotate the shoulder
Deltoid (posterior), teres minor, infraspinatus
Muscles that flex the hip
Tensor fascia latae, pectineus, sartorius, iliopsoas (iliacus, psoas major and minor), rectus femoris
Muscles that flex the shoulder
Pectoralis major, deltoid (anterior), coracobrachialis (assists), biceps brachii (assists)
Muscles that flex the spine
Rectus abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique
Muscles that horizontally abduct the shoulder
Latissimus dorsi, deltoid (posterior), infraspinatus, teres minor, triceps brachii (long head)
Muscles that horizontally adduct the shoulder
Pectoralis major, deltoid (anterior), coracobrachialis
Muscles that internally rotate the hip
Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gluteus minimus, gluteus medius, tensor fascia latae
Muscles that internally rotate the shoulder
Pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid (anterior), teres major, subscapularis
Muscles that laterally flex the spine
Rectus abdominis, internal oblique, external oblique, erector spinae
Muscles that perform downward rotation of the scapula
Rhomboids (major & minor), pectoralis minor
Muscles that perform upward rotation of the scapula
Trapezius (middle & lower, serratus anterior
Primary muscles of the core
Transverse abdominis, multifidi, quadratus lumborum, diaphragm, pelvis floor musculature, internal oblique (posterior fibers)
muscles that extend the knee Vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris
Connects muscle to bone
movements of the shoulder Horizontal adduction, horizontal abduction, internal & external rotation of the shoulder joint