Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Exploring Life And Science Deck (13):
Lists 7 the characteristic of life
acquire materials and energy
grow and develop
respond to stimuli
Describe in good detail the scientific method - including step.
Observation- new observations are made and previous data are studied
Hypothesis - input from various sources is used to stimulate a testable statement
Experiment/observation - the hypothesis is tested by experiment or further observations
Conclusion- the results are analyzed and the hypothesis is supported or rejected
What does standard error mean?
Tells us how uncertain a particular value is.
How are clinical trials conducted
-large number of subjects are divided randomly into groups
- test control groups ARE exposed to an experimental variable
- a control group is NOT exposed to an experimental variable and is given a placebo
- all groups are otherwise treated the same, it's best if subjects and the technicians do not know what group they are in
- results are concluded and published in a scientific journal
What is phase 1 clinical trial?
Uses a fee dozen healthy people to determine safety
What is phase 2 clinical trial?
Uses a few hundred ill people to see if med has a benefit
- experimental mess have worked on mice but not people
- several hundred people is still limited as genetic diversity may not be represented
What is phase 3 clinical trial?
Uses thousands of people with experimental med, negative control, and positive control if available
- some phase 2 trials look promising, but failed in phase 3
- a few hundred people in phase 2 not diverse enough.
Study few/many cases and come to general conclusion
Starts off with general principle to predict individual outcomes - math formulas.
Experimental variable/ independent variable
The thing you're curious about
Experimental units/subjects that's receives NO treatment then compared to units/subjects that are to determine if treatment has any effect
Experimental units/ subjects receives STANDARD treatment, then compared to new treatment to see if new treatment is better than old.
-not all will have positive control