Chapter 1 - Exploring Life And Science Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Exploring Life And Science Deck (13):

Lists 7 the characteristic of life

acquire materials and energy
grow and develop
respond to stimuli


Describe in good detail the scientific method - including step.

Observation- new observations are made and previous data are studied

Hypothesis - input from various sources is used to stimulate a testable statement

Experiment/observation - the hypothesis is tested by experiment or further observations

Conclusion- the results are analyzed and the hypothesis is supported or rejected


What does standard error mean?

Tells us how uncertain a particular value is.


How are clinical trials conducted

-large number of subjects are divided randomly into groups

- test control groups ARE exposed to an experimental variable

- a control group is NOT exposed to an experimental variable and is given a placebo

- all groups are otherwise treated the same, it's best if subjects and the technicians do not know what group they are in

- results are concluded and published in a scientific journal


What is phase 1 clinical trial?

Uses a fee dozen healthy people to determine safety


What is phase 2 clinical trial?

Uses a few hundred ill people to see if med has a benefit

- experimental mess have worked on mice but not people

- several hundred people is still limited as genetic diversity may not be represented


What is phase 3 clinical trial?

Uses thousands of people with experimental med, negative control, and positive control if available

- some phase 2 trials look promising, but failed in phase 3

- a few hundred people in phase 2 not diverse enough.


Inductive reasoning

Study few/many cases and come to general conclusion



Starts off with general principle to predict individual outcomes - math formulas.


Experimental variable/ independent variable

The thing you're curious about


Negative control

Experimental units/subjects that's receives NO treatment then compared to units/subjects that are to determine if treatment has any effect


Positive control

Experimental units/ subjects receives STANDARD treatment, then compared to new treatment to see if new treatment is better than old.

-not all will have positive control


Scientific theory

Concepts that tell us about the order and the patterns within the natural world