Chapter 3 - Cell Theory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Cell Theory Deck (34):
0

Describe how an enzyme works

Metabolic assistants that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction (substrates)

1

What are active sites in enzyme?

A specific region for substrates that are brought together so that they can react. - their specific use depends on the active site.

2

What are substrates in enzyme?

The reactants that participates in the reaction of an enzyme

3

Describe how an enzyme work

E+S -> ES-> E+P

E = enzyme
S = substrate
ES = enzyme-substrate complex
P = product

Enzyme and substrates are fitted together in active site and form ES. Once the Product is formed the product and enzyme breaks apart again, where the enzyme is reused again and again.

4

Functions of a plasma membrane

Keeps cell intact. Only allows certain things and others not - selective permeable

5

Isotonic

Solute. Concentrations the same inside and outside the cell. Water moves into the cell at the rate it moves out. Equilibrium. ( saline in hospital, contact lenses)

6

Hypotonic

Solution is less concentrated than another. Water moves from less concentration of solutes ( more water) to more concentration of solutes (less water)

7

Hypertonic

Solution is more concentrated than another. Water moves from less concentration of solutes (more water) to more concentration of solutes (less water). (Preserve meats, jam/jellies, soy sauce)

8

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a membrane.
Water moves from where water is more come entreated to where it is less concentrated. Ex: water moves from a 1% solution (99% water) to a 25% solution (75% water).

9

Nucleus

Contains DNA/chromosomes
Bounded by double membrane
Suborganelle is nucleolus where RNA is made

10

Ribosomes

Made up of 2 subunits: small and large

Involved in protein synthesis

Those of bacteria differ from eukaryotes and some medicines affects bacteria's ribosomes while not affecting humans.

11

Endoplasmic reticulum

Groups of flattened sacs for manufacture and transport

Smooth ER lacks ribosomes -> manufacture lipids; detoxify drugs

Rough ER has ribosomes -> manufacture/process proteins, make PM

12

Golgi apparatus

Also made of few to many flattened sacs

Processing/finishing molecules from ER

Export materials via vesicles

13

Lysosomes

Bags of about 40 hydrolytic enzymes

White blood cells engulf and destroy pathogens

Organisms can destroy its own cells with lysosomes

Human disease with lysosomes or the enzymes they contain.

14

Mitochondria

Extract energy of food to grow, reproduce

Two membranes: outer is smooth while inner is highly folded/invaginated - a lot of surface area

15

Cytoskeleton

Protein filaments give support and shape to cell, anchor organelles

Uses microtubules (thickest), intermediate filaments, and microfilaments (thinnest)

16

Microtubules

Provide shape

Function as tracks by which other organelles move - vesicles from Golgi to PM

Move chromosomes in cell division through centriole

17

Microtubules

Cilia short, numerous

Flagella longer and few in number

Both have 9+2 structure

18

What are the important features of cellular respiration

1. C skeleton broken bit by bit in a controlled way

2. High-energy hydrogen atoms (protons and electrons) gradually release their energy through carrier molecules before hydrogens given to O2 to make H2O

3. Gradual transfer of energy used to make ATP.

19

Glycolysis

6-C carbohydrate is broken down into 2 3-C molecules

2 net ATPs produced

High-energy electrons are captured by NAD+ -> NADH

20

Citric acid cycle

3-c molecules further breakdown (catabolized) into CO2

2 ATPs generated

More high-energy electrons are captured by NAD+ -> NADH (also FADH2)

21

Electron transport chain

NADH and FADH2 bring the high-energy (and their protons) to a series of proteins

As high-energy electrons are passed from protein to protein, their energy is used to make a high concentration of H+ on one side of a membrane

As H+ go from high to low concentration, ATP is synthesized by process known as chemiosmosis

Final e-/H+ is oxygen to make h2o - metabolic water - oxygen is added to and electron and proton

22

Lactic acid fermentation

In human: anaerobic conditions temporary, so lactic acid leaks from muscles and catabolized into co2 in the liver once more oxygen is taken in. -> more NADH, FADH2, and ATP

Lactate is toxic to cells and causes muscle to cramp and fatigue.

23

Fermentation

Anaerobic process that does not require oxygen

Gives us a burst of energy for a short time, but it produces only 2 ATP per glucose molecule.

When no oxygen available, ETC backs up, which backs up the CAC

Only organisms can use fermentation.

24

How does human use bacteria in lactic acid fermentation

I'll humans with poor lung functions, body cells will use fermentation -> If lactic acid levels are too high, there's a problem in the body. -> not enough oxygen, not enough ATP.

25

3 types of cell junctions found in humans

1. Adhesion junctions

2. Tight junctions

3. Gap junctions

26

Adhesion junctions

Serve to mechanically attach adjacent cells

The cytoskeleton of two adjacent cells are interconnected

Common type of junction between skin cells

27

Tight junctions

Connections between the plasma membrane proteins of neighboring cells produce a zipper like barrier.

Common in the digestive system and the kidney, where it is necessary to contain fluids (digestive juices and urine) within a specific area

28

Gap junctions

Serve as a communication ports between cells

Channel proteins of the plasma membrane fuse, allowing easy movement between adjacent cells.

29

Prokaryotic

Lack membrane-bound organelles

DNA is single, circular molecule without special proteins

Most singled cells - though may be in groups

30

eukaryotes

Have membrane-organelles

DNA is few to many linear molecules with special proteins

Single-called and multicellular

31

Cell theory

The cell is the smallest hint of life

All organisms are composed of cells

Cells can only come from preexisting cells

32

Diffusion

The random movement of exiles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, until they are equally distributed.

33

ATP

Maintain water level
Body temp level
Muscle movement
Build muscle