Chapter 1 General Flashcards Preview

ZOO 305 > Chapter 1 General > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 General Deck (101):
1

a part is above another part

superior, cranial, cephalic

2

a part is below another part

inferior

3

means toward the front

anterior, ventral

4

means toward the back

posterior, dorsal

5

refers to the imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves

medial

6

means towards the side, away from the midline

lateral

7

paired structures, one on each side (lungs)

bilateral

8

refers to structures on the same side (right lung and kidney)

ipsilateral

9

refers to structures on the opposite side

contralateral

10

describes a part closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part

proximal

11

opposite of proximal; a particular body part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk

distal

12

means near the surface

superior

13

means more internal parts

deep

14

a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions; a plane

sagittal

15

sagittal; divides the body into equal parts

midsagittal

16

sagittal; lateral to the midline

parasagittal

17

horizontal; a cat that divides the body into superior and inferior portions

transverse

18

coronal; a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

frontal

19

region between the thorax and pelvis

abdominal, celiac

20

point of the shoulder

acromial

21

forearm

antebrachial

22

anterior surface of the elbow

antecubital

23

armpit

axillary

24

arm

brachial

25

cheek

buccal

26

head

cephalic, cranial

27

neck

cervical

28

ribs

costal, pectoral

29

hip

coxal, illiac

30

leg

crural

31

elbow

cubital

32

finger or toe

digital, digit

33

hand

manual

34

back of shoulder

deltoid

35

inferior posterior region of the head

occipital

36

back

dorsal; dorsum

37

thigh

femoral

38

forehead

frontal

39

external reproductive organs

genital, pubic

40

buttocks

gluteal

41

depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh

groin, inguinal

42

region of the lower back between the ribs and the pelvis

lumbar

43

breast

mammary

44

chin

mental

45

nose

nasal

46

mouth

oral

47

eye cavity

orbital

48

ear

otic

49

palm of the hand

palmar

50

anterior part of the knee

patellar

51

anterior chest

pectoral

52

foot

pedal

53

pelvis

pelvic

54

the inferior-most region of the trunk between the thighs and the buttocks

perineal

55

sole of the foot

plantar

56

area posterior to the knee

popliteal

57

posterior region between the hip bones

sacral

58

middle of the thorax, anteriorly

sternal

59

calf of the leg

sural

60

ankle

tarsal

61

navel

umbilical

62

spinal column

vertebral

63

shoulder blades

scapular

64

side of head near ears

temporal

65

3 movable regions of spine

cervical, thoracic, lumbar

66

2 immovable regions of spine

sacral, coccygeal

67

word for being on the spine

supine

68

heel

calcaneal

69

thumb

pollex

70

big toe

hallux

71

top of the head

parietal

72

line the walls of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and fold back to cover the organs within these cavities

serous membranes

73

cavities of the head

middle ear, oral, nasal, orbital

74

membrane of the lungs

pleural

75

membranes of the abdominopelvic cavity

peritoneal

76

membranes of the heart

pericardial

77

viscera of the abdominal cavity

stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and small and large intestines

78

viscera of the pelvic cavity

terminal end of large intestine, urinary bladder, and internal reproductive organs

79

viscera of the thoracic cavity

lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus

80

separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

diaphragm

81

viscera within the mediastinum

heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus

82

a change is not reversed but intensified, and the effector activity is initially increased rather than turned off

positive feedback

83

self-regulating control systems

homeostatic mechanisms

84

effectors are activated that can return conditions toward normal

negative feedback

85

Requirements of Organisms

water, oxygen, heat, pressure, food

86

the body's ability to keep its internal conditions stable

homeostasis

87

the water and dissolved substances outside of our cells

extracellular fluid

88

tissue fluid

interstitial fluid

89

liquid portion of the blood

plasma

90

Characteristics of Life

movement, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, respiration, digestion, absorption, circulation, assimilation, excretion

91

skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands; protects tissues, regulates body temp, support sensory receptors

integumentary

92

bones, ligaments, cartilages; provide framework

skeletal

93

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs; detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands

nervous

94

cause movements, maintain pressure, produce body heat

muscular

95

glands that secrete hormones; control metabolic activities of body structures

endocrine

96

heart, arteries, capillaries, veins

move blood through blood vessels and transport substances throughout body

97

return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection; lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen

lymphatic system

98

mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines; receive, break down, and absorb food; eliminate unabsorbed material

digestive

99

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs; intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood

respiratory

100

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra; removes wastes from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and eliminate urine

urinary

101

the acquisition and use of energy by an organism

metabolism