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Flashcards in Final Deck (164):
1

a network of cells that sense and respond to stimuli in ways that maintain homeostasis

the nervous system

2

What two cell types are neural tissue composed of?

Neurons and neuroglia

3

specialized cells that read to physical and chemical changes in their surroundings

neurons

4

small cellular processes (arms) that receive input; typicaly highly branched, providing receptive surfaces with which processes from other neurons communicate

dendrites

5

contains granular cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, glory apparatus, microtubules; also neurofilaments ad chromatophilic substance

cell body

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longer process (arm) or nerve fiber that carries information away from the cell in the form of impulses

axon

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a bioelectric signal or action potential which allows the neuron to communicate with other neurons and with cells outside the nervous system

impulse

8

What are bundles of axons called in the PNS?

Nerves

9

What are bundles of axons called in the CNS?

Tracts (brain and spinal cord)

10

nourish neurons; send and receive chemical messages; fill spaces and surround or support neurons; create blood-brain barrier and forms the capillaries

neuroglia

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the small space between a neuron and the cells with which it communicates

synapse

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biological messenger molecules that convey electrochemical messages

neurotransmitter

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3 general functions of the nervous system

receiving information, deciding what to do, and acting on decisions

14

structures at the ends of neurons in the PNS that provide the sensory function of the nervous system gather information by detecting changes side and outside the body; convert information into impulses -> PNS -> CNS

sensory receptors

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communicate voluntary (conscious) instructions originating in the CNS to skeletal muscles, causing contraction

somatic nervous system

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communicates instructions from the CNS that control viscera, which are involuntary subconscious actions

autonomic nervous system

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neurons that conduct impulses from the NS to these responsive structures that carry out motor functions of the nervous system; muscles and/or glands

effectors

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Two systems that are part of the motor portion of the PNS

somatic and autonomic nervous system

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a network of fine threads that extends into the axon and supports it

neurofilaments

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(Nissl bodies) many membranous packets which consists mainly of touch E.R.

chromatophilic substance

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the place from which the axon arises from the cell boy as a cone-shaped thickening

axon hillock

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space between axon terminal (synaptic knob and receptive surface of another cell

synaptic cleft

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neuroglia that encase the large axons of peripheral neurons in lipid-rich sheaths

Schwann cells

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a specialized end of an axon that has many fine extensions that ends as a synaptic knob

axon terminal

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consists of several types of lipids and proteins; gives the cell membranes of Schwann cells higher proportion of lipid

myelin

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surrounds the myelin sheath; only on axons of PNS, not in CNS; regeneration requires the presence of this

neurilemma

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narrow gap in the myelin sheath between Schwann cells; responsible for rapid impulse movement

nodes of Ranvier

28

What color matter would be myelinated axons?

WHITE MATTER

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neuron that haas many processes (dendrites) arising from its cell body

multipolar neeuron

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specialized masses of nerve tissue that are located outside the brain and spinal cord

ganglia

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neuron that only has 2 processes, one arising from either end (nose, ears, eyes)

bipolar neuron

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neuron with simple process extending from its cell body

unipolar neuron

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neurons that conduct impulses from peripheral body parts into the brain and spinal cord; detect changes in the outside world; mostly unipolar; afferent; sensory receptors trigger impulses that travel on these axons to CNS

sensory neurons

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neurons that lie within brain and spinal cord; multipolar; relay information from one part of the brain or spinal cord to another; may conduct incoming sensory information to appropriate regions of processing and interpreting

interneurons

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interneurons aggregate in these specialized masses of nervous tissue; similar to ganglia, but in CNS

nuclei

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neurons that are multipolar; conduct impulses from the brain or spinal cord out to effectors - muscles or glands; efferent

motor neurons

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star shaped cells between neurons and blood vessels; they are for structural support, scar tissue formation, substance transport between blood vessels and neurons, communication between neurons, clean up excess ions, induce synapse formation

astrocytes

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shaped like astrocytes but wit fewer cellular processes, in rows along axons; form myelin sheaths in the brain and spinal cord, proceed nerve growth factors

oligodendrocytes

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small cells with few cellular processes and found throughout the CNS; structural support and phagocytosis (immune protection)

microglia

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cuboidal and columnar cells in the lining of the ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord; form a porous layer through which substances diffuse between the interstitial fluid of the brain and spinal cord and the cerebrospinal fluid

ependyma

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cells with abundant, lipid-rich membrane that wrap tightly around the axon of peripheral neurons; form myelin sheaths of PNS

schwann cells

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small, cuboidal cells that surround cell bodies of neurons in ganglia; support ganglia

satellite cells

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neuroglia of CNS

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependyma

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neuroglia of PNS

Schwann cells, satellite cells

45

Which nervous system lacks the neurilemma?

CNS

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the neuron conducting an impulse to the synapse; the sender of the text message

presynaptic neuron

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the neuron accepting/receiving input at the synapse (could be an effector [muscle or gland])

postsynaptic neuron

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a gap that separates two cells that are connected functionally

synaptic cleft

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the process by which the impulse in the presynaptic neuron signals the postsynaptic neuron; result is that the presynaptic cell stimulates or inhibits a postsynaptic cell; a one way process carried out by neurotransmitters

synaptic transmission

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a series of events that fuses the synaptic vesicles with cell membrane and neurotransmitters are released by exocytosis

impulse

51

Which ions pass more readily through resting neuron cell membranes?

Potassium

52

Where is there a higher concentration of potassium ions? Inside or outside the cell membrane?

Inside!!!!!!

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-70mV; where large numbers of negatively charged ions on the inside of the cell; they cannot diffuse through the cell membrane; in this state, more positive ions leave the cel than enter it, causing the inside of the cell membrane to develop a negative charge than outside the cell

resting potential

54

What is the ratio to potassium and sodium ions entering/leaving the cell?

3 sodium ions leave for every 2 potassium ions that come in

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the mechanism of active transport by which sodium is extruded from a cell and potassium is brought in, so as to maintain the low concentration of sodium and high concentration within the cell with respect to the surrounding medium

sodium/potassium pump

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a rapid change in membrane potential, first in a positive direction, then in a negative direction, returning to the resting potential

action potential

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this is located at the axon hillock or initial segment, because it contains many voltage-gated sodium channels

trigger zone

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reaching this (-55mV) will result in an action potential

threshold potential

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this occurs for an instant when is released out of the cell, then repolarizated

hyperpolarization

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when the axon's voltage-gated channels are temporarily not responsive at all and the axon cannot be stimulated; limits how many action potentials may be generated in a neuron in a given period

refractory period

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where action potentials only occur at the nodes in myelinated neurons, and it is initiated at the trigger zone; the action potentials appear to jump from node to node

saltatory conduction

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local potentials in chemically gated channels which enable one neuron to affect another

synaptic potentials

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lasts for about 15 milliseconds; when a neurotransmitter binds to a postsynaptic receptor and opens sodium ion channels and they diffuse inwards, depolarizing the membrane and could trigger an action potential

excitatory postsynaptic potential

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an action potential is less likely to occur due to potassium ions diffusing out the the cell due to the effect of a neurotransmitter

inhibitory postsynaptic potential

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chains of amino acids; endorphins

neuropeptides

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CNS - controns sksletal muscle actions; PNS - stimulates skeletal muscle contractio at neuromuscular junctions

acetylcholine

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CNS - creates a sense of wellbeing, low levels may lead to depression; PNS - may excite or inhibit autonomic nervous system actions, depending on receptors

norepinephrine

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CNS - creates a sense of wellbeing, deficiency in some brain areas associated with Parkinson disease; PNS - Limited actions in autonomic nervous system; may cite or inhibit, depending on receptors

Doapmine

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within CNS, primarly inhibitory; leads to sleepiness; action is blocked by LSD, antidepressant drugs

serotonin

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CNS; release in hypothalamus promotes alterness

histamine

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CNS, generally inhibitory

GAA

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CNS, generally excitatory

glutamate

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axons originating from different neurons leading to the same postsynaptic neuron

convergence

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a neuron has a single axon, but axons may branch at several points and reach several neurons

divergence

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membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord

meninges

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he three meaning layers from outside to inside

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

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outermost layer; thickest; primarily composed of of tough, white, dense connective tissue and contain many blood vessels and nerves; over entire CNS, can have double thickness in some areas; tough mother

dura mater

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thin, weblike membrane that does not have blood vessels and is located between dura and pia maters; supplies to brain and spinal cord

arachnoid mater

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between arachnoid/pia maters that contain CSF that completely surrounds brain/spinal cord

subarachnoid space

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clear watery fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord by absorbing forces that might otherwise jar and damage the delicate tissues

cerebrospinal fluid

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thin; contains many nerves as well as blood vessels that nourish the underlying cells of the brain and spinal cord - right up against cerebrum and cerebellum; third layer of meninges and innermost

pia mater

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four interconnected cavities the CSF forms that lie in the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem

ventricles

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in the left cerebral hemisphere, the same size as its twin, extends anteriorly and posteriorly into the cerebral hemispheres

first ventricle, as well as second ventricle (lateral)

84

in the midline of the brain beneath the corpus callous, which is a bridge of axons that links the two cerebral hemispheres; communicates with the lateral ventricles trough openings

third ventricle

85

is in the brainstem, just anterior of the cerebellum a cerebral aqueduct is connecting two ventricles together; continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord and has openings in its roof that lead into the subarachnoid space of the meninges

fourth ventricle (third is connected via cerebral aqueduct)

86

tiny, reddish, cauliflower like masses of specialized capillaries form the pia mater, covered by a single layer of ependymal cells that block the passage of water-soluble substances between blood-CSF layer; secretes CSF

choroid plexuses

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contains neural centers associated with sensory function and is response for sensations and perceptions; also contains neural centers and pathways that coordinate muscular movements, and other that regulate visceral activities

brain

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arachnoid membrane that bulges through the dura mater; a way for CSF to get into venous circulation

arachnoid granulations

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root with which impulse enters spinal cord

dorsal root

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root with which impulse exits and heads toward effectors

ventral root

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sensitive to a specific type of internal or external change; the receptor end of a dendrite or a specialize receptor cell in a sensory orgran

receptor

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dendrite, cell body, and axon of a sensory neuron; conducts an impulse from the receptor into the brain and spinal cord

sensory neuron

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dendrite, cell body, and axon of a neuron within the brain and spinal cord; serves as processing center; conducts an impulse from the sensory neuron to its synapse with a motor neuron

interneuron

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dendrite, cell body, nd axon of these neuron; conducts an impulse from the brain or spinal cord out to the synapse with an effector

motor neuron

95

a muscle of gland; responds to stimulation by the motor neuron and produces the reflex or behavioral action

effector

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prosencephalon; divides into anterior and posterior portions (telencephalon and diencephalon)

forebrain

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mesencephalon; contains bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that join lower parts of the brain stem to higher centers of brain; also contains several masses of gray matter that serve as reflex centers for vision; maintains posture

midbrain

98

largest part of brain; two hemispheres connected by the corpus callous; controls higher brain functions, including interpreting sensory impulses, initiating muscular movements, storing memory, reasoning, and intelligence

cerebrum

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two large masses within the cerebrum that are essentially mirror images of each other

cerebral hemispheres

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a broad, flat, bundle f axons that connect the cerebral hemispheres

corpus callosum

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many ridges or convolutions that are separated by grooves that mark the cerebrum's surface

gyri

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a shallow, somewhat deep groove; divide each hemisphere into lobes

sulcus

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a very deep groove (longitudinal and transverse)

fissure

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association areas that carry on higher intellectual processes for concentrating, planning, complex problem solving, and judging the consequences of behavior; motor areas control movements of voluntary skeletal muscle; "executive"

frontal lobes

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sensory areas provide sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, and pain involving skin; association areas function in understanding speech and in using words to express thoughts or feelings

parietal lobes

106

sensory areas are responsible for hearing; association areas interpret sensory experiences and remember visual scenes, music, and other complex sensory patterns

temporal lobes

107

sensory areas are responsible for vision; association areas combine visual images with other sensory experiences

occipital lobes

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motor areas involved with the control of voluntary muscles

pre central gyrus

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sensory areas involved with cutaneous and other senses

post central gyrus

110

a thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion of the cerebrum; contains nearly 75% of all the neuron cel bodies in the nervous system; the boys ultimate control and information processing center

cerebral cortex

111

receive and interpret impulses from sensory receptors, producing feelings and sensations

sensory areas

112

neither primarily sensory nor motor; connect with each other and with other brain structures; analyze and interpret sensory experiences and help provide memory, reasonings, verbalizing, judgment, and emotions

association areas

113

provides motor instructions for written or spoken communication; left frontal

Broca's area

114

general interpretive area; left temporal

Wernicke's area

115

ver rapid repeated stimulation of the same neurons increases the number of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors and causes physical changes at the synapse that makes synaptic transmission effective

long-term potentiation

116

memories are stored in various parts of cerebral cortex; hippocampus

memory consolidation

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masses of gray matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres; produces dopamine; responsible for movement and reward; interacts with motor cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum

basal nuclei

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three parts of basal nuclei

caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus

119

contains thalamus, hypothalamus, optic chiasma, infundibulum, posterior pituitary gland, mammillary bodies, and pineal gland

diencephalon

120

relay station for sensory impulses ascending from other parts of the nervous system to the cerebral cortex; a dense mass; synchronizes action potentials, filters out information

thalamus

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helps maintain homeostasis by regulating visceral activities an by linking the nervous and endocrine systems; regulates many bodily functions such as heart rate, BP, temperature, water and electrolyte balance

hypothalamus

122

allows us to have 3D image, were optic nerves cross

optic chiasma

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two rounded structures behind the infundibulum (pituitary stalk); important for memory

mammillary bodies

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motor fibers that run down each side of the spinal cord

pyramidal tracts

125

produces melatonin, maintains circadian rhythm and regulates reproductive hormones

pineal land

126

controls emotional experience and expression and can modify the way a person acts, producing such feelings as anger, fear, pleasure, and sorrow; hypothalamus, thalamus, basal nuclei, amygdala, hippocampus

limbic system

127

fight or flight

amygdala

128

memory processing

hippocampus

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responsible for autonomic survival functions; connects the cerebrum to spinal cord; mid brain, pons, medulla oblongata

brainstem

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a bulge on the underside of the brainstem the contains masses of gray matter and nerve fibers; relay impulses between the medulla oblongata and cerebrum; helps regulate rate and depth of breathing; relay impulses to cerebellum

pons

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an enlarged continuation of spinal cord that extends from the foramen magnum to the pons and contains masses of gray matter and nerve fibers; conducts vasomotor, cardiac, and respiratory control centers and across nonmetal control centers

medulla oblongata

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"filers incoming sensory impulses, arousig the cerebral cortex into wakefulness in response to meaningful impulses; "wakes up" the cerebrum when sensory input arrives; programs us to wake up at certain time

reticular formation (reticular activating system) RAS

133

a large mass of tissue inferior to the cerebrum and posterior to the brainstem; includes two lateral hemispheres connected by the vermis; equilibrium; communicates with other parts of the CNS by tracts; position of body parts; coordinates muscle activities and maintains posture

cerebellum

134

connects ponds to cerebellum

cerebellar peduncles

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a slender column of nervous tissue that is continuous with the brain and extends downward through the vertebral column; white matter surrounds core of gray matter

spinal cord

136

automatic, subconscious responses to changes; help maintain homeostasis

reflex

137

conduct motor impulses to brain

ascending tracts

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conduct mortar impulses to muscles andor glands

descending tracts

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bundles of axons

nerves

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nerve fiber

axon

141

consists of the nerves that branch form the cNS, connecting it to other body parts; includes the cranial nerves from brain and spinal nerves from spinal cord

PNS (peripheral nervous system)

142

What are the two subdivisions of the PNS

somatic and autonomic

143

consists of the cranial and spinal nerve fibers the connect the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles; plays a role in sensuous activities

somatic nervous system

144

includes fibers that connect the CNS to viscera such as the heart, stomach, intestines, and various glands; controls subconscious actions

autonomic nervous system

145

nerves with one fibers of sensory neurons, conducting impulses into the brain and spinal cord

sensory nerves

146

nerves that have only fibers involved with motor control

motor nerves

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nerves that include both sensory and motor fibers (most nerves)

mixed nerves

148

nerves originating from the brain that communicate with other body part; 12 pairs in total

cranial nerves

149

sensory; sense of smell

I. olfactory

150

sensory; sense of vision

II. optic

151

primarily motor; motor=raise eyelids, move the eyes, adjust amount of life entering the eyes, focus the lenses; sensory=proprioceptors

III. oculomotor

152

primarily motor; motor=move eyes; sensort=proprioceptrs; the smallest cranial nerve

IV. trochlear

153

mixed; largest with 3 divisions. Sensory: surface of eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead, upper eyelids; upper teeth and gum, lining of palate, skin of face; scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth and lip. Motor: mastication, muscles of mouth floor

V. trigeminal

154

primarily motor, motor=muscles that move eyes. Sensory=proprioceptors

VI. abducens

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mixed; sensory=taste w/ anterior tongue. motor=muscles of facial expression, tear glands, and salivary glands

VII. facial

156

sensory; two branches. sensory with equilibrium and hearing

VIII. vestibulocochlear

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mixed; sensory=pharynx, tonsils, posterior tongue, carotid arteries. motor=salivary glands, muscles of pharynx used in swallowing

IX. glossopharyngeal

158

mixed; longest; sensory=pharynx, larynx, esophagus, viscera of thorax&abdomen; somatic motor=muscles with speech&swallowing; autonomic motor=viscera of thorax and abdomen

X. vagus

159

primarily motor; 2 branches (cranial and spinal); cranial=motor-muscles of soft palate, pharynx, larynx. Spinal=motor-muscles of neck&back; sensory=proprioceptor input

XI. accessory

160

primarily motor; motor=muscles that move tongue; sensory=some proprioceptor input

XII. hypoglossal

161

mass of neuron cell bodies outside CNS

ganglion

162

cerebral cortex will give proportional space to motor functions that are critical

homunculus theory

163

the process by which the CNS receives input from the environment via sensory neurons; bottom-up processing

sensation

164

the process by which the brain interprets and organizes sensory information; top-down processing

perception