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Flashcards in Exam - Chapter 9 Deck (118):
1

an increase in muscle mass and cross-sectional area; increase in dimension is due to an increase in the size (not length) of individual muscle fibers

muscle hypertrophy

2

Factors involved in muscle hypertrophy

satellite cells, immune system, growth factors, growth hormone, testosterone, muscle fiber types

3

fuse to the existing muscle fiber, donating their nuclei to the fiber, which helps to regenerate the muscle fiber

satellite cells

4

a peptide hormone that stimulates IGF (insulin-like growth factor) in skeletal muscle, promoting satellite cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation

growth hormone

5

produced in significantly greater amounts in males, has an anabolic (muscle building) effect; increases protein synthesis, which induces hypertrophy

testosterone

6

structures containing the contractile proteins actin and myosin

thick and thin filaments

7

overlapping parallel groups of thick and thin filaments in a repeating pattern; the underlying basis for the striation pattern

myofibril

8

a single muscle cell, multinucleate and may be many centimeters long

muscle fiber

9

a bundle of muscle fibers within a muscle; covers each skeletal muscle; alters of dense connective tissue

fascicle

10

a bundle of fascicles

muscle

11

the connective tissue associated with a muscle that forms these broad fibrous sheets; may be attached to bone or the coverings of adjacent muscles

aponeuroses

12

the layer of connective tissue that closely surrounds a skeletal muscle

epimysium

13

another layer of connective tissue that extends inward from the epimysium and separates the muscle tissue into small sections called fascicles

perimysium

14

a thin covering that surrounds the muscle fiber within a fascicle

endomysium

15

muscle cell membrane

sarcolemma

16

muscle cytoplasm; contains mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, myofibrils, and actin and myosin

sarcoplasm

17

thick filaments composed of protein

myosin

18

thin filaments composed of primarily this protein

actin

19

the functional unit of a muscle; the relating units of striations (myosin and actin)

sarcomere

20

rod-shaped protein; occupies the longitudinal grooves of actin helix, held in place by troponin

tropomyosin

21

a set of membranous channels that extend from the cell membrane into the cytoplasm; has two cisternae on each side

transverse (T) tubules

22

an electrical impulse that is sent down axons of neurons

action potential!

23

the functional connection between a neuron and another cell; the neuromuscular juntion

synapse

24

chemical is released after neurons communicate with the cells they control

neurotransmitters

25

neurons that control effectors; stimulate muscle fibers to contract

motor neurons

26

the muscle fiber membrane forms this!; where nuclei and mitochondria are abundant and a sarcolemma is extensively folded

motor end plate

27

order of muscle dimension: largest to smallest

muscle, fascicles, muscle fibers (cells), myofibrils, thick and thin filaments

28

a small gap that separates the membrane of the neuron and the membrane of the muscle finer; where electricity comes down an axon and neurotransmitters are transferred

synaptic cleft

29

the neurotransmitter that motor neurons use to control skeletal muscle conrtraction

acetylcholine

30

synthesized in the cytoplasm of the motor neuron and is stored in the synaptic vesicles at the distal end of its axon; released into the synaptic cleft when action potential occurs

acetylcholine again!

31

Sodium ion concentration is higher ____ the cell and potassium ____ the cell

outside/inside

32

happens in response to stimulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases calcium ions; binds to troponin and causes tropomyosin to shift and expose active sites on the actin for myosin binding

excitation-concentration coupling

33

when the overlapping thick and thin myofilaments slide past one another, the sarcomere shortens and the muscle contracts

sliding filament theory

34

a myosin head can attach to an actin binding site to form a cross bridge which pulls on the actin filament

crossbridge cycling

35

occurs when a muscle contracts (equal force, change in length)

isotonic contraction

36

rapidly decomposes acetylcholine remaining in the synapse, which prevents continuous stimulation of a muscle fiber

acetylcholinesterase

37

The energy sources of muscle contraction

ATP, phosphocreatine, anaerobic (glycolysis), aerobic (oxidative phosphorylation)

38

synthesized in muscle cells; temporarily stores some oxygen

myoglobin

39

contraction where muscle shortens; force is greater than resistance and shortens

concentric contraction

40

muscle lengthens; contracts with face less than resistance

eccentric contraction

41

muscle contracts but does not change length (holding body upright)

isometric contraction

42

stored glucose

glycogen

43

C6H10O5

glycogen

44

C6H12O6

Glucose

45

consists of one motor neuron and the muscle fibers associated with it

motor unit

46

Will many motor units be needed for finer muscle movements?

Nope! fewer=finer

47

a type of muscle fiber; always oxidative and resistant to fatigue; red fibers (contain myoglobin); rely on oxygen to function

slow twitch (type 1)

48

type of muscle fiber; primarily fatigue resistant; less common

fast twitch - oxidative (type IIa)

49

a type of muscle fiber, white fibers because they have less myoglobin and poorer oxygen supply); reduced ability to carry on the aerobic reactions of cellular respiration and and to fatigue quickly; fewer mitochondria, capillaries, and myoglobin

fast twitch - glycolytic (type IIb)

50

piriformis action

abduction an lateral rotation of thigh

51

sartorius action

flexion of thigh and knee, abduction of leg, lateral rotation of thigh

52

What are the three muscles of the hamstring?

Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

53

Action of biceps femoris

flexion of knee, lateral rotation of leg, extension of hip

54

semitendinosus

flexion of knee, medial rotation of leg, extension of hip

55

semimembranosus

flexion of knee, medial rotation of leg, extension of hip

56

What are the four quadriceps femoris muscles?

Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedialis, vastus medialis

57

Rectus femoris

Extension of knee and flexion of hip

58

vastus lateralis, intermedialis, medialis

extension of knee

59

tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion and inversion of foot

60

fibularis tertius

dorsiflexion and eversion of foot

61

extensor digitorum longus (of foot)

dorsiflexion and extension of toes

62

gastrocnemius

plantar flexion of foot, flexion of knee

63

soleus

plantar flexion of foot

64

plantaris

plantar flexion of foot and flexion of knee

65

flexor digitorum longus (leg)

plantar flexion and inversion of foot, flexion of lateral toes

66

tibialis posterior

plantar flexion and inversion of foot

67

fibulas longus

plantar flexion and eversion of foot

68

masseter

elevation and protraction of mandible

69

temporalis

elevation and retraction of mandible

70

sternocleidmastoid

lateral flexion of neck, rotation of head, flexion of neck

71

splenius capitis

rotation of head, lateral flexion and extension of neck

72

semispinalis capitis

extension of neck and rotation of head

73

scalenes

flexion of neck

74

quadrates lumborum

extension of lumbar

75

erector spinae

extension of neck and rotation of head

76

trapezius

rotation and retraction of scapula

77

rhomboid major

retraction, elevation, and rotation of scapula

78

rhomboid minor

retraction and rotation of scapula

79

levator scapulae

elevation of scapula

80

serrates anterior

protraction and rotation of scapula

81

pectoralis minor

depression and protraction of scapula

82

coracobrachialis

flexion of shoulder and adduction of arm

83

pectoralis major

flexion of shoulder, adduction of arm, medial rotation of arm

84

teres major

extension of shoulder, adduction and medial rotation of arm

85

latissimus dorsi

extension at shoulder, adduction and medial rotation of arm, depression and retraction of shoulder

86

supraspinatus

abduction of arm

87

infraspinatus

lateral rotation of arm

88

teres minor

lateral rotation of arm

89

biceps brachii

flexion of elbow, aspiration of forearm and hand

90

triceps brachii

extension at elbow

91

brachialis

flexion at elbow

92

brachioradialis

flexion at elbow

93

supinator

lateral rotation of forearm and supination of forearm and hand

94

pronator teres

medial rotation of arm, pronation of forearm at elbow

95

pronator quadratus

medial rotation of forearm at wrist; pronation of forearm and hand

96

flexor carpi radialis

flexion of wrist and abduction of hand

97

flexor carpi ulnaris

flexion of wrist and adduction of hand

98

palmaris longus

flexion of wrist

99

flexor digitorum superficialis

flexion of hand at wrist and flexion of joints in fingers

100

extensor carpi radialis longus

extension of hand and abduction of hand

101

extensor capri radialis brevis

extension of hand and abduction of hand

102

extensor carpi ulnaris

extension of hand and adduction of hand

103

extensor digitorum (hand)

extension of wrist and joints in fingers

104

external oblique

compression of abdomen and flexion/rotation of vertebral column

105

internal oblique

flexion and rotation of vertebral column

106

transverse abdominis

flexion and rotation of vertebral column

107

rectus abdominis

flexion and rotation of vertebral column

108

psoas major

flexion of hip

109

iliacus

flexion of hip

110

tensor fasciae latae

abduction and flexion of thigh, medial rotation of thigh

111

pectineus

flexion and adduction of thigh

112

adductor longus

adduction of thigh and flexion of hip

113

adductor brevis

adduction of thigh and flexion of hip

114

adductor magnus

adduction and flexion of thigh, posteriorly - extension of hip

115

gracilis

adduction of thigh and flexion of knee

116

gluteus maximus

extension of hip

117

gluteus medius

abduction and medial rotation of thigh

118

gluteus minimus

abduction and medial rotation of thigh