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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (22):
1

small molecules are built up not larger ones, requiring energy

anabolism

2

larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, releasing energy

catabolism

3

joins many simple sugar molecules (monosaccharides) to form larger molecules glycogen, which store energy in their chemical bonds; outcome is a a disaccharide and water

dehydration synthesis

4

holds the amino acids together

peptide bond

5

can decompose carbs, lipids, and proteins; needs water to start action

hydrolysis

6

control the rates of metabolic reactions; globular proteins that catalyze specific chemical reactions in cells by lowering the activation energy needed to start reactions

enzymes

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during an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, the active site in the enzyme temporarily combines with a part of the substrate forming this

enzyme-substrate complex

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number of substrate molecules an enzyme molecule converts to product each second; 1 to 500,000

turnover number

9

the rate of a chemical reactions depends on:

temperature, chemicals, substrate concentration, pH

10

factors that interfere wit enzymatic action (denature)

heat, radiation, electricity, certain chemicals, extreme p fluids

11

regulatory; stops the process from happening again until another message is received from a feedback mechanism

inhibitory messengers

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leads to the synthesis or breakdown of particular biochemicals; set for the rate of the entire sequence of reactions

metabolic pathway

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when a substrate concentration exceeds a certain limit, the enzyme will not produce as much product

rate-limiting enzyme

14

activates the enzyme's active site through the nonprotein component; helps the active site fold into its appropriate shape; helps bind enzyme to substrate

cofactor

15

composed of vitamin molecules or incorporate altered forms of vitamin molecules; acts as a cofactor (CoA in glycolysis)

coenzyme

16

essential organic molecules that human cells cannot synthesize, through diet; provide coenzymes that can function repeatedly

vitamins

17

the capacity the change something; ability to do work (CHEMLS)

energy

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process that transfers energy from molecules such as glucose and makes it available for cellular use

cellular respiration

19

powers cellular work, active transport across cell membranes, skeletal, secretion, and MORE; contains high-energy phosphate bonds with stored energy that may be quickly transferred to another molecule in a metabolic reaction

ATP

20

release of energy

oxidation

21

"the breaking of glucose;" occurs in cytosol, series of 10 enzyme-catalyzed reactions that breakdown the 6-carbon molecule into 2 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules; anaerobic; yields 2 ATP

glycolysis

22

from each pyruvic acid molecule, enzymes inside the mitochondria remove two hydrogen atoms, a carbon atom, and two oxygen atoms, generating NADH and CO2 and leaving a 2 carbon acetic acid

acetyl CoA