Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Genetics And Biotechnology Deck (49)
What are dominant and recessive traits?
Shows up when present (Capital letter)
Disappears with the dominant trait that is present (small letter)
State the 3 genetic rules that Mendal developed as a result of his study with pea plants
1. Assign letters to trait
2. Determine genotypes if parents
3. Make Punnet square
Go over the genetic terms
8. Homologous Chromosomes
Appearance of Trait
2 diff alleles
2 identical alleles
One of the possible forms of a gene
2 chromosomes that have the same kind of genes in the same order
2 parents differ in one pair of traits
2 parents differ in 2 pairs of traits
Be able to do Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses
Doing good :)
Describe two of the exceptions to Mendals rules
The blending of 2 diff traits to get a 3rd intermediate phenotype
2. Multiple alleles
- more than one pair of alleles is required to produce a trait
Be able to do crosses involving the exceptions
What is a pedigree and why do we use them?
- A visual chart that depicts a family’s history of there genes.
- Can tell the possibilities of someone getting a disorder.
What do each of the following mean when looking at a pedigree?
1. Solid square
2. Empty square
3. Solid circle
4. Empty circle
5. half filled circle or square
affected by the trait (male)
(dominant or recessive)
Half empty: carrier of the trait or hybrid (heterozygous)
Be able to determine the genotype and resulting phenotype of individuals when using a pedigree
Describe gene flow
The transfer of alleles or genes b/w populations
Changes the frequency of certain genes within a population
Look at paper
State a couple of factors that would reduce gene flow
Reduce gene flow:
Populations are far apart for each other
What is a Chromosome?
Protein & DNA, ensures DNA is accurately copied and distributed
A thread like structure of nucleic acids and proteins
Carries genetic info in form of genes
Look at pic in binder
What does DNA stand for?
Supercoiling of DNA allows it to fly into the cells. It also allows genes to be read or not. How is the reading of the genes determine by supercoiling
gene isn’t read, so proteins aren’t made loosely wound-
gene is read so proteins are made
Compare somatic cells and gametes
All cells that aren’t apart of the reproductive system
Cells in the reproductive system
Compare chromatid and chromatin
One half of a chromosome
DNA with all of Gus proteins
Compare haploid and diploid
(n) half the number of chromosomes
(Zn) Contains two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
How do the terms homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids relate?
Individual homologous chromosomes are made of sister chromatids
What is crossing-over?
Switching genetic material b/w homologous chromosomes during meiosis
How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different
Involves PMAT steps in which cells divide
Both allow for replication
Meiosis 11 is similar to Mitosis-> Chromosomes line up & sister chromatids are separated
-cells splits to create 2 identical
Copies of the original cell
- Two identical daughter cells that are diploid
-Cells split to form new cells with half the usual # of chromosomes
- includes 2 stages
-4 daughter cells are haploid & genetically different
-only egg and sperm cells
List two chromosomal abnormalities and describe them
part of chromosome missing
A inverted piece of chromosome
How does non-disjunction happen and why would it cause issues in the organism with these changes?
Produces one cell with extra chromosomes and one cell lacking chromosomes because homologous chromosomes fail to segregate during meiosis
It would cause issues in the organisms because there would be two many proteins or not enough
How many chromosomes are in the usual human cell?
46 chromosomes or 23 pairs
What is a human karyotype and why are they useful?
A pic of all chromosomes in a cell
They are in condensed form
They help us diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and disorders
What is the function of nucleic acids?
Transmits hereditary info
traits make proteins and control cell activity
What are the 3 key components of nucleic acids?
1. A phosphate
2. A sugar
3. A nitrogenous base
- Purines: Guanine and Adenine
- Pyrimidines-Cytosine, Thymine, And Uracil
Of the nitrogenous bases, which are purines and which are Pyrimidines?
Purines: Guanine and adenine
Pyrimidines: Cytosine, thymine and Uracil
Compare DNA and RNA
Double stranded molecules
responsible for storing and transforming genetic info
Has thymine and no Uracil
can’t leave nucleus
has sugar ribose
Single stranded molecule
Directly codes for amine acids
Acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes to make protein
Small segment of Uracil
Can leave Nucleus
Both carry genetic info
Be able to complete DNA chains when given one side of them
You got this :D