Chapter 1 - Genetics And Biotechnology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Genetics And Biotechnology Deck (49)
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1

1.
What are dominant and recessive traits?

Dominant traits:
Shows up when present (Capital letter)

Recessive traits:
Disappears with the dominant trait that is present (small letter)

2

2.
State the 3 genetic rules that Mendal developed as a result of his study with pea plants

1. Assign letters to trait
2. Determine genotypes if parents
3. Make Punnet square

3

3.
Go over the genetic terms
1. Phenotype
2. Genotype
3. Heterozygous
4. Homozygous
5. Pure
6. Hybrid
7. Alleles
8. Homologous Chromosomes
9. Monohybrid
10. Dihybrid

Phenotype:
Appearance of Trait
Genotype:
Gene combination
Heterozygous:
2 diff alleles
Homozygous:
2 identical alleles
Alleles:
One of the possible forms of a gene
Homologous chromosomes:
2 chromosomes that have the same kind of genes in the same order
Monohybrid:
2 parents differ in one pair of traits
Dihybrid:
2 parents differ in 2 pairs of traits
Pure
Homozygous trait
Hybrid
Heterozygous trait

4

4.
Be able to do Monohybrid and dihybrid crosses

Doing good :)

5

5.
Describe two of the exceptions to Mendals rules

1.incomplete dominance
The blending of 2 diff traits to get a 3rd intermediate phenotype

2. Multiple alleles
- more than one pair of alleles is required to produce a trait

6

6.
Be able to do crosses involving the exceptions

Keep going!

7

7.
What is a pedigree and why do we use them?

Pedigree:
- A visual chart that depicts a family’s history of there genes.
- Can tell the possibilities of someone getting a disorder.

8

8.
What do each of the following mean when looking at a pedigree?
1. Solid square
2. Empty square
3. Solid circle
4. Empty circle
5. half filled circle or square

1. Solid:
affected by the trait (male)
(dominant or recessive)
2. Empty:
Not affected
Half empty: carrier of the trait or hybrid (heterozygous)

9

9.
Be able to determine the genotype and resulting phenotype of individuals when using a pedigree

Doing great!

10

10.
Describe gene flow

Gene flow:
The transfer of alleles or genes b/w populations

Changes the frequency of certain genes within a population

Look at paper

11

11.
State a couple of factors that would reduce gene flow

Reduce gene flow:
-small population
Populations are far apart for each other

12

12.
What is a Chromosome?

Chromosome:
Protein & DNA, ensures DNA is accurately copied and distributed

A thread like structure of nucleic acids and proteins

Carries genetic info in form of genes
Look at pic in binder

13

13.
What does DNA stand for?

DeoxyriboNucleic Acid

14

14.
Supercoiling of DNA allows it to fly into the cells. It also allows genes to be read or not. How is the reading of the genes determine by supercoiling

Tightly wounded-
gene isn’t read, so proteins aren’t made loosely wound-
gene is read so proteins are made

15

15.
Compare somatic cells and gametes

Somatic cells-
All cells that aren’t apart of the reproductive system

Gamete cells-
Cells in the reproductive system

16

16.
Compare chromatid and chromatin

Chromatid:
One half of a chromosome

Chromatin:
DNA with all of Gus proteins

17

17.
Compare haploid and diploid

Haploid:
(n) half the number of chromosomes

Diploid:
(Zn) Contains two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent

18

18.
How do the terms homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids relate?

Individual homologous chromosomes are made of sister chromatids

19

19.
What is crossing-over?

Crossing over:
Switching genetic material b/w homologous chromosomes during meiosis

20

20.
How are mitosis and meiosis similar and different

Similar:
Involves PMAT steps in which cells divide
Both allow for replication
Meiosis 11 is similar to Mitosis-> Chromosomes line up & sister chromatids are separated

Different:
Mitosis:
-cells splits to create 2 identical
Copies of the original cell
- Two identical daughter cells that are diploid
Meiosis:
-Cells split to form new cells with half the usual # of chromosomes
- includes 2 stages
-4 daughter cells are haploid & genetically different
-only egg and sperm cells

21

21.
List two chromosomal abnormalities and describe them

Deletion:
part of chromosome missing

Inversion:
A inverted piece of chromosome

22

22.
How does non-disjunction happen and why would it cause issues in the organism with these changes?

Non-disjunction:
Produces one cell with extra chromosomes and one cell lacking chromosomes because homologous chromosomes fail to segregate during meiosis

It would cause issues in the organisms because there would be two many proteins or not enough

23

23.
How many chromosomes are in the usual human cell?

46 chromosomes or 23 pairs

24

24.
What is a human karyotype and why are they useful?

Karyotype:
A pic of all chromosomes in a cell
They are in condensed form

They help us diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and disorders

25

25.
What is the function of nucleic acids?

Transmits hereditary info

traits make proteins and control cell activity

26

26.
What are the 3 key components of nucleic acids?

1. A phosphate
2. A sugar
3. A nitrogenous base
- Purines: Guanine and Adenine
- Pyrimidines-Cytosine, Thymine, And Uracil

27

27.
Of the nitrogenous bases, which are purines and which are Pyrimidines?

Purines: Guanine and adenine

Pyrimidines: Cytosine, thymine and Uracil

28

28.
Compare DNA and RNA

DNA:
Has sugar
Deoxyribose
Double stranded molecules
responsible for storing and transforming genetic info
Has thymine and no Uracil
can’t leave nucleus

RNA
has sugar ribose
Single stranded molecule
Directly codes for amine acids
Acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes to make protein
Small segment of Uracil
Can leave Nucleus

Both
Both carry genetic info

29

29.
Be able to complete DNA chains when given one side of them

You got this :D

30

30.
Briefly describe the process of DNA replication

Protein binds to origin on DNA

Hydrogen bonds are broken, so the double helix “unzips” several points along the chain

DNA polymerase (complex enzyme) bonds to the separated parent chains

Enzyme moves along the chain and bonds proper new nucleotide to the parent chain