Chapter 1: History and Scope of Epidemiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1: History and Scope of Epidemiology Deck (33)
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1
Q

What is Epidemiology?

A

The study of distribution, patterns, and determinants of a disease in defined populations.

2
Q

Determinants?

A

The factors and events that are capable of bringing about a change in healthcare. It could be bacteria that is still around or it could even be our actions.
Ex: Bacteria causing Covid-19 still around. Washing our hands, wearing our masks, etc.

3
Q

Distribution?

A

The way a disease or illness spreads around. The differences in disease patterns. Does a disease only spread to women, teenagers, Asians,etc.?

4
Q

Burden of disease?

A

How a disease may affect a population

Ex: WHO of Global Burden of Disease Project tracks how diseases, injuries, and risk factors affect regions of the world

5
Q

Where does epidemiology come from?

A

Epidemic. The Greek words are epi(upon)+demos(people) +logy(study of)

6
Q

Morbidity?

A

Designates illness

7
Q

Mortality

A

Refers to death. Opposite of immortal. Think of “In Time”

8
Q

Biostatistics?

A

A field/type of statistics related to biology. Applied to living organisms/plants. Critical to evaluation of epidemiologic data

9
Q

What is an epidemic?

A

The spread of a disease in a single location. When there is a sudden increase of cases in an outbreak
Ex: Covid-19 in Wuhan, China

10
Q

Pandemic?

A

When the disease spreads farther into the world. The P” means a disease has a passport. Large numbers of people may be affected and a disease may cross international borders.
Ex: Covid-19 began to spread to other countries like the United States

11
Q

Endemic?

A

Something that belongs to a particular group of people

12
Q

Usual frequency?

A

The disease’s typical occurence at the same time in the same population, in the same geographic area

13
Q

What does it mean for a disease to be communicable?

A

The illness is caused by an infectious agent and can be transmitted from one person to another

14
Q

Another word for communicable disease

A

Infectious disease

15
Q

What is an outbreak?

A

A localized disease epidemic

16
Q

What is surveillance?

A

The monitoring of a disease or illness. Watching the disease to see how it spreads, where it goes, who it affects. Figures out factors, patterns, etc.

17
Q

Who made the smallpox vaccination?

A

Edward Jenner

18
Q

What is the “Mother of all Pandemics”?

A

Influenza

19
Q

Cholera?

A

Lasted from Aug. 19-Sept. 30, 1849. Was from a contaminated water supply at Broad St. in London.

20
Q

What is public health practice?

A

Strategic, organized, and interdisciplinary application of knowledge, skills, and competencies necessary to perform essential services/activities to better healthcare

21
Q

Epidemiology can involve the study of:

A
  • Infectious diseases
  • Chronic diseases
  • Accidents and injuries
22
Q

The definition of epidemiology includes the term “distribution.” Which TWO of the following best describes this term?

A
  • Frequency

- Pattern

23
Q

Which of the following might be considered an epidemic?

A
  • Thousands of cases of Ebola in West Africa
  • 2 cases of small pox in NJ
  • 100 or more cases of meningitis in a Rutgers dorm
24
Q

What is not true about John Snow and the Cholera outbreak on Broad St. in London, August 19 to September 30, 1849?

A

Removing the Broad St. water pump led to the largest decrease in incidence cases

25
Q

To describe:

A

Means to enumerate the cases of disease, to obtain relative frequencies of the disease within subgroups, and to discover important trends in the occurrence of disease

26
Q

To explain

A

Means to discover causal factors as well as to determine modes of transmission

27
Q

To predict

A

Is to estimate the actual number of of cases that will develop as well as to identify the distribution within populations

28
Q

To control

A

The epidemiologic approach is used to prevent the occurrence of new cases of disease, to eradicate existing cases, and to prolong the lives of those with the disease

29
Q

Infectious disease epidemiology is really the only type of epidemiology

A

False

30
Q

In your own words, briefly describe characteristics that distinguish epidemic from pandemic

A

An epidemic is when a disease or illness is spread within a community or population of people. A pandemic is when that disease or illness spreads further to other countries and continents. A way I learned and remember this is the “P” in pandemic can also stand for “passport”, as in a pandemic has a passport. While an epidemic may stay local, a pandemic has a “passport” to go to other places outside of the community.

31
Q

Water-borne infectious disease continues to be a major source of morbidity and mortality globally. Which of the following is NOT a surveillance method used by public health agencies to reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illness associated with drinking water?

A

Treating affected patients with antibiotics to reduce symptoms

32
Q

The underlying premise in epidemiology is that disease or health related states are randomly distributed in populations.

A

False

  • Epidemiology is concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations.
  • “Distribution relates to differences in disease patterns in subgroups of the population. The frequency of disease occurrence..vary from one population to another in the US” (page 13)
33
Q

Define interdisciplinary, and explain why epidemiology is an interdisciplinary science.

A

Interdisciplinary is when something has more than one area or branch of knowledge or information. So in the case of epidemiology, it would be considered interdisciplinary because of the many fields and branches that are involved. Healthcare involves a multitude of fields and therefore the main field of epidemiology would have as well. In epidemiology, there are several science related focuses that need attention. Such as chemistry, biology, anatomy, physics, psychology, etc. All these subjects and more have value not just on their own but altogether and they have influence on the course of epidemiology.