Chapter 4: Descriptive Epidemiology: Person, Place, Time Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Descriptive Epidemiology: Person, Place, Time Deck (43)
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1
Q

What is descriptive epidemiology?

A

portrays the occurrence of a disease w/ respect to the characteristics of person, place, and time

2
Q

What are descriptive studies?

A

They characterize the amount and distribution of disease w/in a pop.

3
Q

Analytic studies?

A

looks at the determinants of the disease, causes in certain location

4
Q

What are characteristics of person?

A
  • age
  • sex/gender
  • race/ethnicity
  • marital status
  • -nativity/migration
  • religion
  • socioeconomic status
  • education
  • history of mental/psychological issues
5
Q

What are the 3 approached to descriptive epidemiology?

A
  • case reports
  • case series
  • cross sectional studies
6
Q

What are case reports?

A

Detailed accounts of cases of disease among individuals

Ex:

7
Q

What are case series?

A

A grouping of cases that share similar adverse health outcomes

8
Q

What are protective factors?

A

an influence that reduces the likelihood of adverse consequences from harmful exposures

9
Q

What is the method of residues?

A

Subtract potential causal factors to determine which individual factor or set of factors makes the greatest impact on a dependent variable

10
Q

Characteristics of place?

A
  • international
  • geographic (w/in country) variations
  • urban/rural differences
  • localized occurrence of disease
11
Q

What is a protective factor?

A

an influence that reduces the likelihood of adverse consequences from harmful consequences

12
Q

What does the marital selection model propose?

A

Married people are healthier than non married people; lower morbidity/mortality rates found among married people

13
Q

Is there an issue with polls regarding race/ethnicity?

A

Yes. Choices tend to be very broad (Black, Asian, Hispanic, etc.) and tend to give very few selection
Ex: a person could be Dominican or Haitian, and there is no selection for that. Also, it tends to group races together, even though they aren’t

14
Q

Acculturation?

A

modifications that individuals or groups go through when they come into contact w/ another culture
Ex: Japanese when they came into America

15
Q

What is the acculturation hypothesis?

A

That as immigrants become acculturated to a host country, their health profiles tend to converge w/ that of the native born pop.

16
Q

Nativity?

A

could be foreign born or native born. it’s the place of origin of the individual or their relatives. Frequently overlaps w. migration

17
Q

What is SES?

A

Socioeconomic status. One’s ranking in society (w/ regards to income, education, and occupation).

18
Q

Characteristics of time?

A
  • cyclic fluctuations/seasonal trends
  • point epidemics
  • secular time trends
  • clustering
19
Q

What is a common source epidemic?

A

an outbreak “due to exposure of a group of persons to a noxious influence that is common to the individuals in the group

20
Q

What is a point source epidemic?

A

Also called a point epidemic. This may indicate “the response of a group of people to a source of infection or contamination to which they were exposed almost simultaneously. It occurs w/in 1 incubation period for the disease

21
Q

What is a continuous common source outbreak?

A

when an outbreak lasts longer than the time span of a single incubation period and is caused by a common source of exposure

22
Q

Secular trends?

A

gradual changes in the frequency of a disease over long time periods as there are changes in the rates of chronic disease

23
Q

Case clustering?

A

an unusual aggregation of health events grouped together in space or time

24
Q

Temporal clustering?

A

grouping of cases in time; the occurrence of a response to exposure to an agent after a measurable time period

25
Q

Spatial clustering?

A

the concentration of cases of disease w/in a a particular geographic area. This could expose residents to shared environmental exposures

26
Q

Age is a factor of?

A

Person

27
Q

Race is a factor of?

A

Person

28
Q

Country of origin is a factor of?

A

Person

29
Q

Rural/urban residence is a factor of?

A

Place

30
Q

Secular trends is a factor of?

A

Time

31
Q

Descriptive epidemiology characterizes the amount and distribution of disease within a population and enables the researcher to…

A
  • Generate testable hypotheses regarding etiology

- Evaluate trends in health and disease within a population

32
Q

An observed increase of colorectal cancer incidence over time may be due to:

A
  • Improved screening and diagnostic tests
  • Changes in screening recommendations
  • A true increase in colorectal cancer incidence
33
Q

De-identified data

A

No individual identifiers in the data

34
Q

Multiphasic screening

A

While conducting screening efforts, conducting several during this one visit

35
Q

Registry

A

A collection of disease information into a database

36
Q

Data sharing

A

Providing information which can allow other researchers to initiate new tests, study associations, or confirm findings

37
Q

Record linkage

A

Using more than one data source and pulling them together to create a more robust dataset

38
Q

Public health surveillance

A

The ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data

39
Q

Representativeness

A

How well the study population (the people within your study) reflect sample population (the population where you obtain your study population from)

40
Q

Generalizability

A

How well the study population (the people within your study) reflect the target population (the population where you would like to apply inferences to)

41
Q

Screening

A

Testing individuals to determine suspect or confirmed disease cases

42
Q

Big data

A

Described by variety, volume, and velocity, this typically utilizes large numbers of information and can be used to accelerate technological advances in software and hardware

43
Q

Which of the following characteristics are required for a useful surveillance system?

A
  • Systematic data collection
  • Ongoing data collection
  • Data analysis and interpretation
  • Dissemination of data to improve public health practice