Chapter 2: Practical Applications of Epidemiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Practical Applications of Epidemiology Deck (24)
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1
Q

What are pop. dynamics?

A

Changes in the demographic structure of a population associated with factors like births/deaths, immigration/ emigration

2
Q

What are the sections of pop. dynamics?

A

Fixed population. Dynamic population

3
Q

Fixed population?

A

One distinguished by a specific happening and consequently adds NO new members. The pop. decreases in size as a result of deaths only
Ex: Survivors of the 9/11 attack in NY; residents of New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina

4
Q

Dynamic population?

A

Adds new members through immigration/birth. Loses members through emigration/death

5
Q

What are disappearing disorders?

A

Disorders that were formerly common sources of morbidity/mortality but have disappeared since then
Ex: measles, smallpox, poliomyelitis

6
Q

Residual disorders?

A

Diseases that are largely known, but specific methods of control have not been implemented
Ex: Sexually transmitted (HIV, gonorrhea, chlamydia), health issues from drugs/alcohol, etc.

7
Q

Persisting disorders?

A

Diseases that remain common but they come around here and there

8
Q

What is demographic transition?

A

The historical shift of high to low birth/death rates. In agrarian societies to more developed countries

9
Q

What is an epidemiologic transition?

A

Describes a shift in the pattern of morbidity/mortality from causes related primarily to infectious diseases to chronic degenerative diseases

10
Q

Pathogenesis?

A

Development of a disease w/in a host

11
Q

What are health disparities?

A

Differences in health outcomes that are closely linked with social, economic, and environmental disadvantage

12
Q

What is primary prevention?

A

Occurs during the period of prepathogenesis. It minimizes hazards to health and inhibit factors that increase the risk of disease. Includes health promotion and protection before the disease can even start
Ex: exercise, abstaining drugs or sex

13
Q

Secondary prevention?

A

During pathogenesis phase. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment as well as disability treatment
Ex: screenings to detect cancer, etc.

14
Q

Tertiary prevention?

A

During late pathogensis. The person already has the disease and has been treated clinically. Rehab is needed to restore patient
Ex: physical therapy, halfway houses, fitness programs, etc.

15
Q

Dose-response

A

“…in early analyses of the Framingham study data, relative weight seemed to be related to to an increased incidence of…

16
Q

Strength of association

A

“…for over fifteen years, prospective inquiries into smoking have shown the death rate from cancer of the lung in cigarette smokers is nine to ten times the rate in nonsmokers…”

17
Q

Biological Plausibility

A

“The evidence now available shows that tobacco smoke is a multipotent carcinogenic mixture that can cause cancer in many different organs”

18
Q

We discussed seven uses of epidemiology, grouped under two headings: (1) health status and health services, and (2) disease etiology. Which if the following types of studies fall under the study of disease etiology grouping?

A
  • Estimate individual risks and chances
  • Complete the clinical picture
  • Search for causes
19
Q

Patients with chronic pain are often referred to a pain clinic to manage their pain. Which type of prevention measure is this?

A

Tertiary

20
Q

Which type of prevention is achieved in this scenario: The US Housing and Urban Development Department has achieved something spectacular. Through their efforts, and with the help of policymakers, have passed a mandate to remove all lead-paint chips and asbestos from every house across the US.

A

Primary

21
Q

To safely achieve _________ against COVID-19, a substantial proportion of a population would need to be vaccinated, lowering the overall amount of virus able to spread in the whole population. One of the aims with working towards this goal is to keep vulnerable groups who cannot get vaccinated (e.g. due to health conditions like allergic reactions to the vaccine) safe and protected from the disease.

A

Herd immunity

22
Q

Since the initial case was identified in July 2010, tuberculin skin tests were administered to 187 contacts during 2010–2012; 26 (81%) of 32 residents and seven (5%) of 155 nonresident contacts (facility employees and residents’ family members) had evidence of latent TB infection. Administration of the tuberculin skin tests to identify individuals with latent TB infection (i.e., infection without symptoms), is which type of prevention measure?

A

Secondary

23
Q

How to find a higher life expectancy in a graph?

A

Look at the growth/amount of people in the elderly age (80 and above). That country or location tends to have people who will live longer to see an older age.

24
Q

How to find the highest birth rate?

A

Look at which location has a higher rate at a young age/ age group. That means that more children were born or were alive