Chapter 1 - Human Anatomy and Physiology: An Overview Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

AAOS Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary > Chapter 1 - Human Anatomy and Physiology: An Overview Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Human Anatomy and Physiology: An Overview Vocabulary Deck (77):
0

Acids

Electrolytes that dissociate in water to release hydrogen ions

1

Activation energy

The amount of energy required to start a reaction

2

Anatomic planes

Imaginary surfaces used as references to identify parts of the body

3

Anatomic position

The position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward

4

Anion

An ion that contains an overall negative charge

5

Atomic number

A whole number representing the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus of an atom

6

Atomic weight

The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

7

Atoms

The smallest complete unit of an element that have the element's properties; they vary in size, weight, and interactions with other atoms

8

Bases

Electrolytes that release ions that bind with hydrogen ions

9

Carbohydrates

Substances (including sugars and starches) that provide much of the energy required by the body's cells, as well as helping to build cell structures

10

Catalyst

Atoms or molecules that can change the rate of a reaction without being consumed during the process

11

Cation

An ion that contains an overall positive charge

12

Chemistry

The study of the composition of matter and changes in its composition

13

Compounds

Molecules made up of different bonded atoms

14

Covalent bond

A chemical bond were Atoms complete their outer electron shells by sharing electrons

15

Decomposition reaction

A reaction that occurs when bonds with a reactant molecule break, forming simpler atoms, molecules, or ions

16

Distal

Farther from the trunk or near to the free end of an extremity

17

Dorsal

The posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand

18

Electrolytes

Salt or acid substances that become ionic conductors when dissolved in a solvent (water); chemicals dissolved in the blood

19

Electrons

Single, negatively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of an atom

20

Elements

Fundamental substances, such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, that compose matter

21

Enzymes

Substances designed to speed up the rate of the specific biochemical reactions

22

Exchange reaction

A chemical reaction where parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to produce new products

23

Extension

The bending of a joint resulting in the distal segment moving away from the proximal segment. Typically resulting in straightening of the limb at the joint.

24

External rotation

Rotating an extremity at its joint away from the midline

25

Flexion

The bending of a joint resulting in the distal segment moving towards the proximal segment

26

Fowler position

The position in which the patient is sitting up with the knees bent or straight.

27

Frontal (Coronal) plane

An imaginary plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior your halves

28

Gross anatomy

The study of the body parts that are visible to the naked eye, such as bones, muscles, and organs.

29

Homeostasis

A tendency to constancy or stability and the body's internal environment

30

Hydrogen bond

The attraction of the positive hydrogen of a polar molecule to the negative nitrogen or oxygen end of another polar molecule

31

Hyperextension

When a body part is extended to the maximum level or beyond the normal range of motion

32

Inferior

Below a body part or nearer to the feet

33

Inorganic

Not having both carbon and hydrogen Atom

34

Internal rotation

Rotating the segment of the extremity distal to the joint toward the midline

35

Ions

Atoms that either gain or lose electrons

36

Isotope

One of two (or more) forms of an element having the same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons; they may or may not be radioactive

37

Lateral

In anatomy, parts of the body that lie farther from the midline; also called outer structures

38

Lipids

Fats, fat-like substances (cholesterol and phospholipids), and oils that supply energy for body processes and building of certain structures

39

Medial

Parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures

40

Microscopic anatomy

The study of tissue structures and/or cellular structures or organization, Often visible only through a microscope

41

Midaxillary line

An imaginary line drawn through the midportion of the axilla to the waist that is parallel to the midline

42

Midclavicular line

An imaginary line drawn through the midpoint of the clavicle that is parallel to the midline

43

Midsagittal plane

An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus (naval) to the floor; also called the midline

44

Molecule

Particles made up of two or more joined atoms

45

Neutrons

Unchanged or "neutral" particles in the nucleus of an atom

46

Nucleic acid

Large organic molecules, or macromolecules, that carry genetic information or form structures within cells, and include DNA and RNA

47

Organic

Having both carbon and hydrogen atoms

48

Pathophysiology

The study of body functions of a living organism in an abnormal state

49

Peptides

Protein molecules consisting of amino acids held together by peptide bonds

50

pH

The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution

51

Phospholipid

A type of lipid molecule that comprises the cell membrane

52

Physiology

The study of the body functions of the living organism

53

Polar molecule

A molecule that uses a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally; this results in a shape that has an uneven distribution of charges

54

Posterior

In anatomy, the back surface of the body

55

Pronation

Rotation of an extremity so that the palm faces downward

56

Prone position

Lying flat, and face down

57

Proteins

Created from amino acids, they include enzymes, plasma proteins, muscle components (actin and myosin), hormones, and anti-bodies

58

Protons

Single, positively charged particles inside the nucleus of an atom

59

Proximal

Closer to the trunk

60

Radioisotope

Also known as radioactive isotopes or radio nuclides, they are atoms with unstable nuclei

61

Range of motion (ROM)

The arc of moment of an extremity at a joint

62

Recovery position

When a patient is placed on his or her side to allow easy drainage of fluids from the mouth; also called the left lateral recumbent position

63

Recumbent

Any position in which the patient is laying down or leaning back

64

Regional anatomy

Study of anatomy associated with a particular body region; also called topographic anatomy

65

Reversible reaction

A chemical reaction where the products of the reaction can change back into the reactants they originally were

66

Sagittal (Lateral) plane

Imaginary plane dividing the body into left and right parts

67

Steroid

Molecules with four connected rings of carbon atoms, including cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, Cortisol, estradiol.

68

Superior

Above a body part or nearer to the head

69

Supination

Turning the palm upward (towards the sky)

70

Supine position

The position in which the body is lying face up

71

Synthesis reaction

A reaction that occurs when two or more reactants (Atoms) bond to form a more complex product or structure

72

Systemic anatomy

The study of anatomy associated with particular organ system

73

Topographic anatomy

The study of anatomy associated with a particular body region; also called regional anatomy

74

Transverse (axial) plane

An imaginary line where the body is cut into top and bottom parts

75

Trendelenburg position

The position in which the body is supine with the head lower than the feet

76

Ventral

The anterior surface of the body