Chapter 3 - The Skeletal System Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

AAOS Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary > Chapter 3 - The Skeletal System Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Skeletal System Vocabulary Deck (181):
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Acetabulum

The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, articulates with the femoral head

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Acromioclavicular (AC) joint

The point at which the clavicle attaches to the acromion process

2

Acromioclavicular (AC) separation

In injury caused by distraction of the clavicle away from the acromion process of the scapula

3

Acromion process

The tip of the shoulder in the sight of attachment for both the clavicle and shoulder musculature

4

alveolar arch

The ridges between the teeth, which are covered with thick and connected tissue and epithelium; also called alveolar ridge is

5

anulus fibrosus

a ring of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue that is part of the intervertebral disc

6

appendicular skeleton

The portion of the skeletal system that compromises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle

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Appositional growth

The formation of new bone on the surface of a bone

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Atlas

The first cervical vertebra (C1), which provides support for the head

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Axial skeleton

The part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage

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Axis

The second cervical vertebra, the point that allows the head to turn

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Battle sign

Bruising over the mastoid process, usually from a Basilar skull fracture

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Bone marrow

Specialized tissue found within bone that manufactures most erythrocytes

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Bruxism

Grinding together of the upper and lower teeth

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Bulging disk

A ballooning of an intervertebral disk without Frank herniation

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Bursae

Small fluid filled sac located between a tendon and a bone help lubricate two surfaces that are rubbing against each other

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calcaneus

The heel bone

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Callus

The zone of repair in which a mess of exudates and connective tissue forms around a break in a bone and convert to bone during healing

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Cancellous bone

Bone that is made up of a lacy network of bony rods called trabeculae

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Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

Compression of the median nerve within the carpal canal at the wrist

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Carpals

The bones of the wrist; they include the scaphoid, lunate, triqutrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones

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Cartilage

The support structure of the skeletal system that provides cushioning between bones; also forms the nasal septum and portion of the outer ear

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Central disk herniation

The most serious disk rupture that occurs when nuclear material protrudes straight back into the spinal canal, potentially compressing neurologic elements and causing neurologic injury

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cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows into the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges

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Cervical vertebrae

The seven smallest vertebrae, found in the neck

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Chondroblasts

Cells that produce cartilage

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Clavicle

The collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum and anterior to the scapula

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Closed fracture

A fracture in which the bone ends have not been exposed by a breakthrough of the skin

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Coccyx

The tailbone

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Compact bone

Bone that is mostly solid, with few spaces

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Compression fracture

A fracture of the vertebral body associated with collapse of the body

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Coronal suture

The point where the parietal bones join together with the frontal bone

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Costochondritis

Inflammation of the Costal cartilage, which attaches to the ribs to the sternum

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Cranium

The bones that encase and Protect the brain, including the parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bone

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Crepitus

A grinding sound or sensation

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Cribriform plates

Horizontal bones perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity

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Crista galli

A prominent bony ridge in the center of the anterior fossa to which the meninges are attached

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degenerative disc disease

A progressive form of arthritis that causes deterioration of the intervertebral disk

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diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone

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Displaced fracture

A fracture in which bone fragments are separated from one another and are not in anatomic alignment

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Dwarfism

A state of abnormally small bones

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Endochondral growth

The growth of cartilage in the physis (epiphyseal plate) which is eventually replaced by bone

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Endostreum

A layer that lines the inner surfaces of bone

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epicondylitis

An inflammation of the muscles of the elbow joint; more commonly known as tennis elbow

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Epiphyses

The growth plate of a long bone

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Ethmoid bone

The main supporting structure of the nasal cavity; it also forms part of the eye orbits

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External acoustic meatus

An opening in the temporal bone that contains the ear canal

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Facial skeleton

The maxillae, zygomatic bones, nasal bones, Vomer, inferior nasal Conchae, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, and mandible

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Femur

The thighbone; the longest and one of the strongest bones in the body

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Fibroblasts

Cells that secrete proteins and collagen to form connective tissue between broken bones ends and at other sites of injury throughout the body

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Fibula

The long bone on the lateral aspect of the lower leg

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Flat bones

Types of bones that are relatively thin and flattened

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Foramen Magnum

The large opening at the bottom of the skull through which the brain connects with the spinal cord

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Foramina

Small openings, perforations, or orifices in the bones of the cranial vault

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Fracture

A break in the continuing continuity of a bone

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Frontal bone

The bone that forms the forehead and part of the roof of the nasal cavity

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Gigantism

A state of bony overgrowth

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Girdles

The bony belts that attach the extremities the axial skeleton

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Glenoid fossa

The part of the scapula that forms the socket in the ball-and-socket joint of the shoulder

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Haversian systems

Units of compact bone consisting of a tube (Haversian canal) with laminae of bone that surrounds them

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Herniated disc

A tear in the anulus fibrosus the results in leakage of the nucleus pulposus, most commonly against exiting nerve roots

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Humerus

The supporting bone of the upper arm

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Hydroxyapatite

A mineral compound containing calcium and phosphate that, along with collagen, comprises the structural element of bone

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Hyoid Bone

The bone that supports the tongue and its muscle

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Ilium

One of the three bones the fuse to form the pelvic ring

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Inferior nasal conchae

Scroll shaped bone attached to the lateral nasal cavity walls that support the mucous membranes

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Intervertebral disk

A mass of fibrocartilage between each vertebral body of the spine, composed of the anulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus

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Intervertebral foramina

The opening between each vertebra through which the spinal (peripheral) nerves pass from the spinal cord

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Ischium

One of the three bones the fuse to form the pelvic ring

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joint

The point where two or more bones come together allowing movement to occur

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Kyphosis

Outward curve of the thoracic spine

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Lacrimal bones

Bones that make up part of eye orbits and contain the tear sac

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Lambdoid suture

The point where the occipital bone attached to the parietal bones

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Lamellae

Thin sheets or layers into which bone tissue is organized

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Lateral malleolus

An enlargement of the distal end of the fibula, which forms the lateral wall of the ankle joint

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Ligaments

Band of fibrous tissue that connect bones to bones; they support and strengthen a joint

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Long bones

Type of bone that is longer than it is wide

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Lordosis

Inward curve of the lumbar spine just above the buttocks; an exaggerated form of lordosis results in the condition on its swayback

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Lower limbs

The femur, TIbias, fibulas, Patellae, tarsal, metatarsals, and phalanges

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Lumbar vertebrae

The five vertebrae of the lower back

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Mandible

The bone of the lower jaw; the only movable bone in the face

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Mastoid process

A prominent bony mass at the base of the skull behind the ear

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Maxillae

The bones that make up the upper jaw

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Medial malleolus

The distal end of the tibia, which forms the medial side of the ankle joint

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Medullary cavity

The internal cavity of the diaphysis of a long bone that contains a bone marrow

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Meninges

The three layers of membrane, the Dura, mater arachnoid, and pia matter, the surrounds the brain

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Menisci

Shock-absorbing fibrocartilage pads within some synovial joints

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Metacarpals

The bones of the palms of the hands

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Metaphysis

The area of a long bone where the diaphysis and epiphysis converge; where the physis (epiphyseal plate) is located

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Intervertebral foramina

The opening between each vertebra through which the spinal (peripheral) nerves pass from the spinal cord

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Ischium

One of the three bones the fuse to form the pelvic ring

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joint

The point where two or more bones come together allowing movement to occur

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Kyphosis

Outward curve of the thoracic spine

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Lacrimal bones

Bones that make up part of eye orbits and contain the tear sac

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Lambdoid suture

The point where the occipital bone attached to the parietal bones

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Lamellae

Thin sheets or layers into which bone tissue is organized

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Lateral malleolus

An enlargement of the distal end of the fibula, which forms the lateral wall of the ankle joint

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Ligaments

Band of fibrous tissue that connect bones to bones; they support and strengthen a joint

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Long bones

Type of bone that is longer than it is wide

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Lordosis

Inward curve of the lumbar spine just above the buttocks; an exaggerated form of lordosis results in the condition on its swayback

100

Lower limbs

The femur, TIbias, fibulas, Patellae, tarsal, metatarsals, and phalanges

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Lumbar vertebrae

The five vertebrae of the lower back

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Mandible

The bone of the lower jaw; the only movable bone in the face

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Mastoid process

A prominent bony mass at the base of the skull behind the ear

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Maxillae

The bones that make up the upper jaw

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Medial malleolus

The distal end of the tibia, which forms the medial side of the ankle joint

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Medullary cavity

The internal cavity of the diaphysis of a long bone that contains a bone marrow

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Meninges

The three layers of membrane, the Dura, mater arachnoid, and pia matter, the surrounds the brain

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Menisci

Shock-absorbing fibrocartilage pads within some synovial joints

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Metacarpals

The bones of the palms of the hands

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Metaphysis

The area of a long bone where the diaphysis and epiphysis converge; where the physis (epiphyseal plate) is located

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Metatarsals

The bones on the soles of the feet; they from the foot arches

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Nasal bones

the thin, delicate bones that joined to form the bridge of the nose

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Nasal cavity

The chamber inside the nose that lies between the floor of the cranium in the roof of the mouth

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Nasal septum

The rigid partitions composed of bone and cartilage that separates the right and left nostrils

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Nondisplaced fracture

A fractured bone that has not moved from its normal position

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Nucleus pulposus

The gelatinous mass that makes up the center of each intervertebral disk

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Oblique fracture

A fracture the forms an angle to the shaft of the bone

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Occipital bone

The bone that forms the back and base of the cranium

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Occipital condyles

Articular surface on the occipital bone where the skull articulates with the atlas on the vertebral column

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Open fracture

A fracture in which a bone end has penetrated the skin; also called a compound fracture

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Orbits

Bony cavities in the frontal skull that enclose and protect the eyes

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Ossicles

The three small bones in the middle ear: the malleus, incus, and stapes

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ossification

The formation of bone by osteoblast

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Osteoblast

Bone forming cells

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Osteoclasts

Large, multinucleated cells that dissolve bone tissue and play a major role in bone remodeling

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Osteocytes

An osteoblast that becomes surrounded by bony matrix; a mature bone cell

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Osteogenesis imperfecta

A genetic bone disease that results in fragile bones

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Osteomalacia

An abnormal softening of bones because of the loss of calcium

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Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of the bone and muscle caused by infection

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Osteons

Units within a compact bone in which blood vessels are located; also called the Haversian system

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osteoporosis

A reduction in the quantity of bony tissue

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Palatine bones

Irregularly shaped bones found in the posterior part of the nasal cavity

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Paranasal sinus

The sinuses, or hollowed sections of bone in the front of the head, that are lined with mucous membrane and drain into the nasal cavity; the frontal and maxillary sinus

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Parietal bones

Bones that form the upper sides and roof of the cranium

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Patella

The kneecap

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Pectoral girdle

The scapulae and clavicles

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pedicles

The feet of each vertebra in the vertebral arch

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Pelvic girdle

the hip bone

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Pelvis

The attachment of the lower extremities to the body, consisting of the sacrum and two pelvic bones

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Periosteum

A double layer of connective tissue that lines the outer surface of the bone

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Phalanges

The small bones of the digits of the fingers and toes

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Physis

The major site of bone elongation, located at each end of a long bone between the epiphysis and metaphysis; also called the growth plate

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Pituitary gland

An endocrine gland, located in the sella tunica of the brain, responsible for directly or indirectly of affecting all bodily functions

144

Plantar fasciitis

An irritation of the tough bands of connective tissue extending from the calcaneus to the metatarsal head of each toe

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Pubic arch

An angle formed by the anterior portion of the hip bone (pubis)

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Pubis

One of the three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring

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Radius

The shorter, lateral bone of the forearm

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Ribs

The 12 pairs of bones that primarily make up the thoracic cage, connecting posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae

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Rickets

A disease caused by vitamin D deficiency

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sacrum

One of the three bones (sacrum and two pelvic bones) that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae

151

Saddle joint

To saddle shape articulating surfaces oriented at right angles to each other so that complementary surfaces articulate with each other, such as is the case with the thumb

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Sagittal suture

The point of the skull where the parietal bones join together

153

Scapula

The triangular shaped bone that comprises the shoulder blade, which is an integral component of the shoulder girdle

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Scoliosis

Sideways curvature of the spine

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Sells turcica

Depression in the middle of the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located

156

Short bones

Types of bone that are as broad as they are long

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Shoulder joint

A ball and socket joint consisting of the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa

158

Sinusitis

Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses

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Skull

The structure at the top of the axial skeleton that houses the brain and consist of the 28 bones that comprise auditory ossicles, the cranium, and the face

160

Sphenoid bone

The anterior portion of the base of the cranium

161

Sutures

Attachment points in the skull where the cranial bones join together

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Synovial fluid

The small amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication

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Talus

A bone that articulates with the tibia, calcaneus, and navicular bone to form the lower part of the ankle joint

164

Tarsals

The bones of the ankles; they include the medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, navicular, cuboid, talus, and calcaneus

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Temporal bone

Bones that form the lower side and base of the cranium

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Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

The joint between the temporal bone in the posterior condyle of the mandible that allows for movement of the jaw

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Tendons

Fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

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Thoracic cage

The ribs, thoracic vertebrae, and sternum

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Thoracic vertebrae

The 12 vertebrae located in the center of the vertebral column that (mostly) connect with the ribs

170

Tibia

The shinbone; the larger of the two bones of the lower leg

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Tinnitus

The perception of sound in the inner ear with no external environmental cause; often reported as ringing in the ears, but may be roaring, buzzing, or clicking

172

Trabeculae

Bony rods that make up a lacy network of cancellous bones and are oriented to increase weight-bearing capacity of long bones

173

Trismus

Involuntary contraction of the mouth resulting in clenched teeth; occurs during seizures and head injuries

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Ulna

The longer, medial bone of the form

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Upper limbs

The humerus bone, radius bones, ulna bones, carpal, metacarpals, and phalanges

176

Vertebral arch

The posterior portion of the vertebra, which contains the bony processes, facets, and pedicles

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Vertebral column

The spine, or primary support structure of the body, which houses the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves

178

Vertebra Foramen

A hole through which spinal nerve pass from the spinal cord

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Vomer bone

The flap bone making up the lower posterior nasal septum

180

Zygomatic bone

Also known as the malar bones; they form the prominence of each cheek