Chapter 2 – Cells Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

AAOS Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary > Chapter 2 – Cells Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 – Cells Vocabulary Deck (120):
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Active transport

A method used to move compounds across a cell membrane to create or maintain an imbalance of charges, usually against a concentration gradient and requiring the expenditure of energy

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

The major source of energy for all chemical reactions of the body

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Adipose (fat) tissue

A type of connective tissue that contains large amounts of fat

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Antecubital fossa

The anterior surface of the bend of the Elbow

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Anterior triangle

The area of the neck that is bordered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the anterior midline of the neck, and the inferior border of the mandible

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Appendicular region

A division of the skeletal system that includes the extremities and their attachments to the body

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Axial region

A division of the skeletal system that includes the head, neck, and trunk

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Axilla

The armpit

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Axons

Components of the nerves that conduct impulses to adjacent cells

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Basement membrane

The noncellular layer in an epithelial cell the anchors the overlying epithelial tissue

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Body cavities

Hollow areas within the body that contain organs and organ systems

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Cardiac muscle tissue

Striated involuntary muscle that has the capacity to generate and conduct electrical impulses

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Carotid triangle

Area of the anterior triangle of the neck that contains the carotid artery and internal jugular vein

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Cell membrane

The cell wall; a selectively permeable layer of cells that surrounds intracellular content and controls movement of substances into and out of the cell

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Cells

The basic building blocks of life, made up of protoplasm (cytoplasm); specialized for particular functions

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Centrioles

Organelles that are essential in cell division

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Columnar epithelium

Rolls of tall, thin epithelial cells

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Chromosomes

Structures containing DNA within the cells nucleus; human cells containing 23 pairs

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Cilia

The hair like microtubule projecting on the surface of a cell that can move materials over the cell surface

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Concentration gradient

The natural tendency for substance to flow from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, within or outside the cell

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Cranial cavity

The hollow portion of the skull

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Crenation

Shrinkage of a cell that result when to much water leaves the cell through osmosis

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Cuboidal epithelium

Rows of square shaped epithelial cells

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Cytoplasm

The gel like material inside a cell. It makes up most of the cells volume, and suspends the cells organelles; also called protoplasm

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Cytosol

The clear liquid portion of the cytoplasm

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Dendrites

Components of the neuron that receives impulses from the axon and contain vesicles for release of neurotransmitters

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Deoxyribosenucleic acid (DNA)

The genetic material found on the chromosomes in the cells nucleus

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diffusion

A process where molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

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Dysrhythmias

Disturbances in cardiac rhythm

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Electrolytes

Salt or acid is substances that become ionic conductors when dissolved in a solvent (water); chemicals dissolved in the blood

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Electrons

negatively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of an atom

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Endocytosis

The uptake of material through the cell membrane by a membrane-bound droplet or vesicle formed within the cells protoplasm

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Endoplasmic reticulum

A series of membranes in which proteins and fats are manufactured

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Exocytosis

The release of secretions from cells that have been accumulated in vesicles

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Extracellular

Substances located outside of the cell membrane

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Extracellular fluid (ECF)

Fluid outside of the cell, in which most of the bodies supply of sodium is contained

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Facilitated diffusion

The process whereby a carrier molecule move substances in or out of the cell from areas of high or too low or concentration

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Flagella

Tail-like microtubule structures capable of motion to propel the cell

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Fontanelles

Areas in the infants skull where the sutures between the skull bones have not yet closed

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Girdles

Bony structures that attach the limbs to the body (hip and shoulder)

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Golgi apparatus

A set of membranes in the protoplasm involved in the formation of sugars and complex proteins

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Hemothorax

An abnormal cumulation of bloody fluid within the plural space following trauma

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Hyperkalemia

A excessive amount of potassium in the blood

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Hypernatremia

A serum sodium level of greater then 145 mEq/L

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Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC)

A diabetic emergency that occurs from a relative insulin deficiency, resulting in hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity, and an absence of significant ketosis

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Hypoglycemia

Abnormally low blood glucose levels

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Hypokalemia

A low concentration of potassium in the blood

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Hyponatremia

A serum sodium level that is less then 135 mEq/L

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Hypoxia

A dangerous condition in which the supply of oxygen to the tissues is reduced

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integument

Skin, the covering of the body surface

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Intracellular

Substances, such as organelles, that are found inside the cell membrane

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Ion channels

Proteins – lined pours or transport channels, specifically size for each substance, which allow electrolyte movement among the cell

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Intracellular fluid (ICF)

Fluid within cells in which most of the bodies supply of potassium is contained

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lysis

The process of disintegration or breakdown of cells that occur when excess water enters the cell through osmosis

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Lysosomes

Membrane – bound vesicles that contain a variety of enzymes functioning as a cells digestive system

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Mediastinum

The space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus , and large blood vessels

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meiosis

A specialized form of cell division that results in the production of mature sperm and ova

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Microtubules

Hollow filamentous structures that make up various components of the cell

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Mitochondria

Small, rod like organelles that function as metabolic center of the cell and produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

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Mitosis

The division of chromosomes in a cell nucleus

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Nervous tissue

Neurons and neuroglia

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Neuroglia

Collectively, the name for the collective and supporting tissues of the nervous tissue

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Neurons

The main functional unit of the nervous system

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Neutrons

Uncharged or "neutral" particles in the nucleus of an atom

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Nonstriated

Smooth muscle tissue

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Nuclear envelope

The membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell

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Nucleoli

Rounded, dense structures in the protoplasm that contain RNA and synthesize proteins

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Nucleus

The nerve center, a central body, of the cell, embedded within the protoplasm

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Organ system

A group of organs that have a common purpose, such as the skeleton and muscles

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Organelles

The internal structures within the cells that carry out specific functions for the cell

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Organism

An individual living thing; made up of various organ systems

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Organs

Different types of tissues working together to perform a particular function

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Osmosis

The movement of a solvent, such as water, from an area of low solute concentration to one of high concentration through a selectively permeable membrane to equalize concentrations of a solute on both sides of the membrane.

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Osmotic pressure

The measure of the tendency of water to move by osmosis across a membrane

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Parietal portion

The portion of the service membrane that lines the walls of the trunk cavities

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Pericardial cavity

The region around the heart

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Pericardial effusion

An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac

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Pericardial Tamponade

A condition that occurs as fluid accumulates around the heart, which restricts the hearts stroke volume

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Pericardial sac

The lubricated potential space between the layers of the pericardium

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Pericardium

The service membrane that surrounds the heart

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Peripheral nerves

The nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body by exiting between the vertebrae of the spine

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Peritonitis

Inflammation of the Peritoneum, the protective membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavity

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Phagocytosis

The process in which one cell eats or engulfs a foreign substance to destroy it

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Pinocytosis

A process by which cells ingest the extracellular fluid and its content

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Pleura

The serous membrane covering the lungs and lining of the thoracic cavity

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Pleural space

The potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura

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Pleural fluid

The small amount of lubricating fluid that fills the pleural space

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Pneumothorax

An abnormal accumulation of air within the pleural space

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Popliteal fossa

The space behind the knee

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Posterior triangle

The area of the neck containing the lymph nodes, brachial plexus, spinal accessory nerve, and a portion of the subclavian artery

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Protons

Single, positively charged particles inside the nucleus of an atom

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Protoplasm

A viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structures and provides a medium for intracellular transport; also called cytoplasm

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Pseudostratified epithelium

A single layer of epithelial cells of varying heights, all of which attached to the basement membrane, but all do not reach the free surface

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Remodeling

The ongoing process of cell renewal or some cells actively dividing during life and others die and are replaced by new cells

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Retroperitoneal organs

The organs (kidneys, pancreas, and duodenum) and major blood vessels located in the retroperitoneal space

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

A nucleic acid associated with controlling cellular activities

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Ribosomes

Organelles that contain RNA and proteins

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Selective permeability

The ability of the cell membrane to selectively allow compounds into the cell based on the cells current needs

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Semipermeable

The property of the cell membrane that describes the ability to allow certain elements to pass through while not allowing others to do so

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Serous membrane

Membrane that lines body cavities that line openings to the outside

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Serum osmolality

The number of osmotically active particles in serum

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Sex cells

Germ (reproductive) cells; in males they are known as sperm and and females they are known as Oocytes (eggs)

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Simple epithelium

A single layer of cells, all of which are in contact with the basement membrane of the epithelial cell

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Skeletal muscle tissue

Voluntary muscle tissue attached to bone and composed of long threadlike cells that have light and dark striations

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Skull

The protective vault that houses the brain and is composed of the cranium and facial bones

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Sodium potassium exchange pump

A mechanism that uses active transport to move sodium out of the cells and potassium into the cells

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Solutes

Dissolved particles, such as salts, contained in the solvent

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Somatic cells

All of the other cells in the human body besides the sex cells

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Spinal cavity

The spinal column or vertebral canal, housing the spinal cord

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Spindle fibers

Microtubules radiating from the centrioles

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Squamous epithelium

Flat sheets of epithelial tissue

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Stratified epithelium

More than one layer of cells, only one of which is in contact with the basement membrane of the epithelial cell

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striated

Muscle tissue that has microscopic bands and may be either voluntary, such as leg muscles, or involuntary, such as cardiac muscle

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Tachycardia

A rapid pulse rate

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Tachypnea

A rapid respiratory rate

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Tissues

Groups of similar cells that work together

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Transitional epithelium

Tissue that changes in appearance due to tension; it lines the urinary bladder, ureters, superior urethra

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Umbilicus

The navel

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Vertebral column

The spine or primary support structure of the body that houses the spinal cord and the peripheral nerves

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Visceral portion

The portion of the serous membrane that covers the outside of an internal organ