Chapter 5 - Respiratory System Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 - Respiratory System Vocabulary Deck (81):
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Alveolar ducts

Ducts formed from division of the respiratory bronchioles in the lower airway; each Duct ends in clusters known as alveoli

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alveoli

Tiny sacs of lung tissue in which gas exchange takes place

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Alveolocapillary membrane

Very thin membrane, consisting of only one cell layer, that lies between the alveolus and capillary, through which respiratory exchange between alveolus and the blood vessels occurs. Also known as the pulmonary capillary membrane

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Asbestosis

A disease of the lungs caused by inhalation of asbestos particles

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Asthma

A chronic inflammatory lower airway condition resulting in intermittent wheezing and excess mucus production

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Bicarbonate ions

Ions related to carbonic acid; they are formed from carbon dioxide transport mechanism

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Black lung disease

A disease of the lung cause by consistent inhalation of coal dust

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Bronchial arteries

Arteries that branch off of the thoracic aorta and supply the lung tissue with blood

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Bronchial veins

veins that return deoxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs

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Bronchioles

Find subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveolar ducts; made of smooth muscle and dilate or constrict in response to various stimuli

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Bronchodilator

Medication that is designed to improve lung function by widening the bronchial tubes

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Carbaminohemoglobin

The bond of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin

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Carbonic anhydrase

An enzyme in red blood cells that speeds reaction of carbon dioxide and water, resulting in carbonic acid

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Carina

A ridgelike projection of tracheal cartilage located where the trachea bifurcates into the right and left mainstem bronchi

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Chronic bronchitis

A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is associated with excess mucus production that results from overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airways

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A progressive and irreversible disease of the airway marked by decreased inspiratory and expiratory capacity of the lungs

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Conchae

Three bony ridges contained within the lateral walls of the nasopharynx

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diffusion

The process in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

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Emphysema

The infiltration of any tissue by air or gas; a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by distention of the alveoli and destructive changes in the lung parenchyma

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Epiglottis

A leaf-shaped cartilaginous structure that closes over the trachea during swallowing

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Esophagus

Collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids to the stomach

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Expiration

Exhalation

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Expiratory reserve volume

Supplemental air; additional air that is expelled from the lungs due to forced exhalation

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External nares

The external openings in the nasal cavity; also called the nostrils

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Forced expiratory vital capacity

The volume of air exhaled from the lungs following a forceful exhalation

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functional residual capacity

Expiratory reserve volume plus residual volume

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glottis

The vocal chords and the opening between them

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Hard palate

The floor of the nasal cavity

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Hemoglobin

The iron containing protein in the red blood cells

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Hilum

The point of entry for the bronchi, vessels, and nerves into each lung

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Hyperventilation

Deep, rapid breathing; it lowers blood carbon dioxide levels

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Hypoxia

A deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues

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Inspiration

Inhalation

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Inspiratory capacity

Tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume

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Inspiratory reserve volume

Additional air that enters the lungs due to forced inspiration

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Interior nares

The posterior opening for the nasopharynx into the pharynx

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Larynx

A complete structure formed by the epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, corniculate cartilage, and cuneiform cartilage; the voice box

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Lingula

A small portion of the left lung that is the equivalent of the middle lobe in the right lung

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Lungs

The two primary organs of breathing

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Mainstem bronchi

The part of the lower airway below the larynx through which air enters the lungs

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medullary respiratory center

The dorsal and ventral responsory groups in the medulla oblongata as well as the respiratory groups of the Pons

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Nasal septum

The rigid partition composed of bone and cartilage that separates the right and left nostrils

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Nasolacrimal ducts

The passage through which tears drain from the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity

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Nasopharynx

The nasal cavity (the portion of the fairings that lives above the level of the roof of the mouth); formed by the union of the facial bones

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Oropharynx

A tubular structure that forms the posterior portion of the oral cavity, extending vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea

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Oxyhemoglobin

The combination of oxygen that diffuses into the blood and the hemoglobin molecule

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Parietal pleura

The membrane that lines the walls of the plural cavity

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Partial pressure

The amount of pressure each gas contributes to diffusion

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Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Paco2)

A measurement of the percentage of carbon dioxide in the blood

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Partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2)

A measurement of the percentage of oxygen in the blood

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pH

The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution

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Pharynx

The cavity lying posterior to the mouth, connecting to the esophagus; the throat

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Pleura

The serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space

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Pleural space

A potential space between the visceral plural and parietal pleura; it is described as potential because under normal circumstances, the space does not exist

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Primary respiratory acidosis

A decrease in the blood pH secondary to insufficient exhalation of CO2

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Primary respiratory alkalosis

An increase in the blood pH secondary to excessive exhalation of CO2

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Residual volume

The volume of air remaining in the respiratory passages and lungs after maximal expiration

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Respiratory areas

Parts of the brain that control inspiration and expiration

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Respiratory bronchioles

Structures formed by the final branching of the bronchioles

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Respiratory capacities

The four capacities created by the combination of two or more of the respiratory volumes

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Respiratory cycle

One cycle of inspiration followed by expiration

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Respiratory membrane

Layers of an alveolus that separate air from blood and a capillary; it is where blood and alveolar air exchange gases. Also known as the pulmonary capillary membrane or the alveolar capillary membrane

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Respiratory system

All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, including the upper and lower airways and their component parts

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Respiratory volumes

Four distinct volumes involved in respirations: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume

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Resting tidal volume

The volume that leaves during a normal, resting expiration (about 500 mL)

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Restrictive lung disease

Diseases that limit the ability of the lungs to expand appropriately

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Secondary bronchi

Airway passages in the lungs that are formed from the division of the right and left main stem bronchi

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Spirometer

A device used in pulmonary function testing that measures air entering and leaving the lungs over a specific period of time

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Surface tension

An effect that makes it difficult for the alveoli to inflate; it is caused by attraction of water molecules

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Surfactant

A mixture of lipids and proteins synthesized to reduce the tendency of alveolar collapse and to ease alveolar inflation

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Tertiary bronchi

Airway passages in the lungs that are formed from branching of the secondary bronchi

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Tidal volume

A measure of the depth of breathing; the volume of air that is inhaled or exhaled during a single respiratory cycle

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Total lung capacity

Vital capacity plus residual volume

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Trachea

The conduit for all entry into the lungs; a tubular structure that is approximately 10-12 cm long and composed of a series of C-shaped cartilaginous rings; also called the windpipe

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True vocal cords

The inferior portion of the vocal cords that vibrate to produce sound

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Turbinates

A set of bony convolutions formed by the conchae in the nasopharynx that help to maintain smooth airflow

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Uvula

A soft – tissue structure that resembles a punching bag; located in the posterior aspect of the oral cavity, at the base of the tongue

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Ventilation

The process of exchanging air between the lungs and the environment; includes inhalation and exhalation

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vestibular folds

The superior portion of the vocal cords; also called the false vocal cords

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Visceral pleura

The pleural membrane that covers the lungs

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Vital capacity

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs with maximum inspiration and exhalation