Chapter 11 - Endocrine System Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 - Endocrine System Vocabulary Deck (108):
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Acromegaly

A disorder caused by chronic overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland that is characterized by a gradual and permanent enlargement of the flat bones (the lower jaw) and if the hands and feet, abdominal organs, nose, lips, and tongue; also called gigantism

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Addisonian crisis

Acute adrenocortical insufficiency

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Adenohypophysis

One of the two portions of the pituitary gland, it produces hormones that are not neurohormones; also called the anterior pituitary

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Adrenal cortex

The outer layer of the adrenal gland, it produces hormones that are important in regulating the water and salt balance of the body

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Adrenal glands

Glands located on top of each kidney that produce and secrete certain sex hormones, as well as other hormones that are vital to maintaining the body's water and salt balance; also called suprarenal glands.

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Adrenaline

Hormone with alpha and beta sympathomimetic properties, produced by the adrenal glands that mediates the "fight-or-flight" response of the sympathetic nervous system; also called epinephrine

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Hormone that targets the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol

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Aldosterone

One of the two main hormones responsible for adjustments to the final composition of urine; increases the rate of active reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions into the blood and decreases reabsorption of potassium.

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Alpha cells

Cells located in the islet of Langerhans that secrete glucagon

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Anabolic steroids

Synthetic androgens used to increase muscle mass

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Androgens

Make sex hormones

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Androstenedione

A steroid sex hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, tested, and ovaries.

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Anterior pituitary (lobe)

One of the two portions of the pituitary gland; it produces hormones that are not neurohormones; also called the Adenohypophysis

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Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland; it constricts blood vessels and raises the blood pressure; also called vasopressin

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Autocrine

Denoting self-stimulation through cellular production of a factor and a specific receptor for it.

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Beta cells

Cells located in the islet of Langerhans that secrete insulin

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Beta-endorphins

Proteins produced in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary that have the same effects as opiate drugs such as morphine but are 80 times more potent

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Calcitonin

A hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland that is important in the regulation of calcium levels in the body.

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Circadian rhythms

Associated with environmental day and night cycles; these rhythms help the body to distinguish day from night

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Conn syndrome

A condition that results in excess secretion of aldosterone, most commonly caused by a benign tumor.

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Corticosteroids

Any of several steroids secreted by the adrenal gland.

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Cortisol

The most important corticosteroid secreted by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, it has many effects on the body.

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Cushing syndrome

A condition caused by excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal glands resulting in obesity, abnormal hair growth, high blood pressure, emotional disturbances, and cushingoid facies or the so-called "moonface."

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Diabetes insipidus

A disorder of the pituitary gland that results in production of very large volumes of dilute urine.

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Diabetes mellitus

A condition that results from impaired production of insulin by the pancreas

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Dwarfism

Stunted growth caused by a deficiency of growth hormones.

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Endocrine gland

Glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.

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Endocrine system

The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.

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Epinephrine

Hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that has a vital role in the function of the sympathetic nervous system; also called adrenaline.

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Estrogen

A hormone released from the ovaries that stimulates the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle; it is one of three major female hormones.

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Exocrine glands

Glands that secrete chemicals for elimination.

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Exophthalmos

Protrusion of the eyes from the normal position within the socket.

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Feedback inhabition

Negative feedback resulting in the decrease of an action in the body.

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Follicles

Small cavity glands within the thyroid gland that contain thyroglobulin

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Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

The hormone that regulates the production of both eggs and sperm, as well as production of reproductive hormones.

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Gigantism

A disorder caused by chronic overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland that is characterized by a gradual and permanent enlargement of the flat bones (the lower jaw) and of the hands and feet, abdominal organs, nose, lips, tongue; also called acromegaly.

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Glands

A cell, group of cells, or and organ that selectively removes, concentrates, or alter materials in the blood and secreted them back into the body.

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Glucagon

Hormone produced by the pancreas that is vital to the control of the body's metabolism and blood glucose level; glucagon stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.

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Glucocorticoid

A hormone secreted by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands that play an important role in metabolism and inhibit inflammation.

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Gluconeogenesis

A process that stimulates both the liver and the kidneys to produce glucose from the noncarbohydrate molecules.

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Glycogen

A long polymer from which glucose is converted in the liver (animal starch)

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Goiter

Enlarged visible mass in the anterior part of the neck caused by enlargement of the thyroid gland.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

A hormone released by the hypothalamus that influences the release of kuteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone.

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Gonads

The reproductive glands.

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Growth hormone (GH)

A hormone that stimulates growth in most tissues, especially if long bones in the extremities; also called somatotropin.

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Growth hormone releasing-inhibiting hormone

A hormone released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone; also called somatostatin.

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Growth hormone-releasing hormone

A hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone.

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Hormone-sensitive lipase

An enzyme that is activated by glucagon; it breaks triglycerides down into free fatty acids and glycerol.

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Hormones

Substances formed in specialized groups or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same organism; regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and body temperature.

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Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

One of the three major female hormones; it is produced by a developing embryo after conception.

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Hyperparathyroidism

A condition that results in a loss of calcium from the bones, as well as increases in serum calcium levels, caused by excess secretion of parathyroid hormones.

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Hyperthyroidism

Overactivity of the thyroid gland, which results in increased metabolic rates, weight loss, rapid pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, diarrhea, and at times, abnormal protrusion of the eyes.

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Hypocalcemia

Potentially life-threatening low blood calcium levels resulting from a loss of parathyroid function.

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Hypophysis

The gland that secreted hormones that regulate the function of many other glands in the body; also called the pituitary gland.

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Hypothalamic-pituitary axis

The part of the neuroendocrine system that involves interactions of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

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Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis

A major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress; regulates the secretion of corticosteroids.

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Hypothalamohypophyseal portal system

A specialized set of blood vessels that carry releasing factors from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.

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Hypothalamus

The basal part of the diencephalon; it regulates the function of the pituitary gland.

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Infundibulum

The stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.

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Inhibiting factors

Compounds that travel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in a specialized set of blood vessels; also called releasing factors.

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Insulin

Hormone produced by the pancreas that is vital in the control of the body's metabolism and blood glucose levels

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Islet of Langerhans

Specialized group of cells in the pancreas were insulin and Glucagon are produced.

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Isthmus

A band of tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland.

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Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Hormone that regulates the production of both eggs and sperm, as well as production of reproductive hormones.

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Medulla

The inner portion of the adrenal glands, which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.

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Melatonin

A hormone secreted by the pineal gland that functions as a biological clock, helping to regulate the circadian rhythms.

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Mineralocorticoids

Hormones produced in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex that are important in the regulation of water and salt balance in the body.

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Negative feedback

The concept that once the desired effect of a hormone has been achieved, further production of the hormone is inhibited until it is needed again; also called feedback inhibition.

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Neurohormones

Hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary.

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Neurohypophysis

One of the two portions of the pituitary gland; it is an extension of the central nervous system and secretes hormones called neurohormones; also called posterior pituitary.

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Norepinephrine

A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is vital in the function of the sympathetic nervous system.

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Osmoreceptors

Specialized neurons in the brain that regulate the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone.

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Ovaries

The female reproductive glands.

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Oxytocin

A hormone that causes the smooth muscles of the pregnant uterus to contract and milk to be released from the breast of lactating women.

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Pancreas

A flat, solid organ that lies below and behind the liver and the stomach, and which is a digestive gland that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct; considered both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland.

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Paracrine

Relating to a kind of hormone function in which the effects of the hormone are restricted to the local environment.

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Parafollicular cells

Cells located between the follicles in the thyroid gland that produce the hormone calcitonin.

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Parathyroid glands

Four glands that are embedded in the posterior portion of the thyroid, they produce and secrete parathyroid hormone.

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Parathyroid hormone

Hormone produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands; it maintains normal levels of calcium in the blood and normal neuromuscular function.

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Pineal gland

Secretes the hormone melatonin in response to changes in light conditions.

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Pituitary gland

An endocrine gland that secretes the hormones that regulate the function of many other glands in the body; also called the hypophysis.

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Positive feedback

The concept that once the desired effect of a hormone begins, further production of the hormone is stimulated.

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Posterior pituitary (lobe)

One of the two portions of the pituitary gland; it is an extension of the central nervous system and produces hormones called neurohormones; also called the neurohypophysis.

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Progesterone

A hormone released by the ovaries that stimulates the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle; it is one of three major female hormones.

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Prolactin

A hormone that plays an important role in milk production in women.

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Prolactin-inhibiting hormones

Hormones released by the hypothalamus that influence the inhibition of prolactin.

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Prolactin-releasing hormones

Hormones released by the hypothalamus that influence the release of prolactin.

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Prostaglandins

A group of hormone-like fatty acids that are produced in many body tissues, including the uterus, brain, and kidneys.

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Releasing factors

Compounds that travel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in a specialized set of blood vessels; also called inhibiting factors.

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Somatomedins

Proteins produced in the liver, skeletal muscle, and other tissues that are stimulated by growth hormone.

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Somatostatin

A brownie released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone; also called growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone.

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Somatotropin

Hormone that stimulates growth in many tissues, especially of long bones in the extremities; also called growth hormone.

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Testes

The male reproductive glands.

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Testosterone

The major androgen produced by the testes.

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Tetany

Painful muscle spasm that results from several conditions including a low blood calcium level.

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Tetraiodothyronine (T4)

One of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland; it is essential for normal growth and development in children as well as regulation of body metabolism.

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Thymosins

Hormones that affect early production and differentiation of lymphocytes.

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Thymus

a gland that is larger in children but shrinks with age; it secreted thymosins, which are important in early immunity by affecting production and differentiation of lymphocytes.

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Thyroglobulin

A protein to which thyroid hormones are bound.

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Thyroid gland

A large endocrine gland that is located at the base of the neck and produces and excretes hormones that influence growth, development, and metabolism.

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

A hormone that controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland; also called thyrotropin.

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Thyrotropin

A hormone that controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland; also called thyroid-stimulating hormone.

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Thyroxine-binding globulin

A person synthesized in the liver that binds to hormones T3 and T4.

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Triiodothyronine (T3)

One of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland; it is essential for normal growth and development in children as well as regulation of body metabolism.

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Vasopressin

A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland that contracts blood vessels and raises the blood pressure; also called antidiuretic hormone.

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Zona fasciculata

One of the three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it produces corticosteroids.

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Zona glomerulosa

One of the three divisions of the adrenal cortex; it produces mineralocorticoids.

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Zona reticularis

One of three divisions of the adrenal cortex; it secretes a few relatively weak make sex hormones, or androgens.