Chapter 8 - Nervous System Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

AAOS Anatomy and Physiology Vocabulary > Chapter 8 - Nervous System Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Nervous System Vocabulary Deck (119):
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Autonomic nervous system

A subdivision of the nervous system that operates without conscious control and regulate the function of the internal organs, glands, and smooth muscles; comprised of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

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Nervous system

The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary

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Somatic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which there is voluntary control

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Neurons

The basic nerve cells of the nervous system, containing a nucleus within a cell body and extending one or more processes; they exit in masses to form nervous tissue

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Axons

Long, slender filaments projecting from a nerve cell that conducts impulses to adjacent cells

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Dendrites

The parts of the neuron that receives impulses from the axon and contains vesicles for release of neurotransmitters

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Neuroglia

One of two basic types of neural tissue, neuroglia support, protect, defend, and aid in the repair of injury of neural tissue, and regulate composition of nervous system interstitial fluid.

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Unmyelinated axons

Neurons with no myelin sheath or white matter

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Schwann cells

Nervous tissue that helps form the myelin sheath around certain neurons

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Myelinated nerves

An axon surrounded by a membrane sheath produced by Schwann cells

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Myelin sheath

A membrane formed by Schwann cells, which cover the axons of certain neurons

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Node of Ranvier

Regions between individual Schwann cells in myelinated neurons, between which action potential jumps

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White matter

Bundles of myelinated nerves

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Synapse

The junction between nerve cells across which nervous stimuli are transmitted. Includes the synaptic cleft, presynaptic cell membrane with synaptic vesicles and axon terminal and postsynaptic cell membrane.

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Postsynaptic terminal

The end of a nerve were electrical impulses are received from the synaptic cleft

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Presynaptic terminal

The end of a nerve where neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft

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Synaptic cleft

The space between neurons where electrical impulses trigger the release of neurotransmitters, which in turn stimulate an electrical reaction in adjacent neurons

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Synaptic vesicles

Vesicles that contain neurotransmitters

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Neurotransmitters

Chemicals produced by neurons that stimulate electrical reactions in adjacent cells

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Nerve

Nervous tissue that connects the nervous system with body parts or organs

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Nerve fibers

Groups of nerve cells that are bundled together

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Brain

The controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness;

functions include:
- perception
- control of reactions to the environment
- emotional responses
- judgement

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Brainstem

The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as Respirations

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Central nervous system

The brain and the spinal cord

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Cerebrum

The largest portion of the brain that controls higher thought processes, including:
- control of movement
- hearing
- balance
- speech
- visual perception
- emotions
- personality

Also called cerebral cortex

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Substantia nigra

A layer of gray matter located in the mid-brain

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Spinal reflex arcs

automatic reactions to stimuli mediated by Neuronal pathways within the spinal cord that occur without conscious thought

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sulci

Grooves located between the gyri in the cerebrum

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Flexor reflex

A withdrawal telex in the flexor muscles of the limbs that contract in response to an unpleasant stimulus

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Ascending reticular activating system

Several structures located throughout the brain stem that are responsible for maintenance of consciousnesses

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Longitudinal fissure

The crevasse that separates the right and left hemisphere of the cerebrum

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Gyri

The numerous folds in the cerebrum, which greatly increase the surface area of the cortex

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Frontal lobe

The portion of the brain that is important in voluntary motor actions and personality traits

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lobes

Subdivisions within each hemisphere of the cerebrum; each lobe shares the name of the bone of the skull that overlies it

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Cerebral cortex

The largest portion of the brain, it controls the higher thought processes; also called the cerebrum

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Occipital lobe

The portion of the brain that is responsible for the processing of visual information

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Temporal lobe

The portion of the brain that plays an important role in hearing and memory

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Parietal lobe

The portion of the brain that is the site for reception and evaluation of most sensory information, except smell, hearing, and vision

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Diencephalon

The part of the brain between the brainstem in the cerebrum that includes the thalamus and hypothalamus

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Thalamus

The part of the diencephalon the processes most sensory input and influences mood and general body movements, especially those associated with fear or rage

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Subthalamus

The part of the diencephalon that is involved in controlling motor functions

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Epithalamus

Part of the diencephalon with functions related to emotions, circadian rhythms, and connecting the limbic system with other parts of the brain

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Hypothalamus

The most inferior portion of the diencephalon; it is responsible for control of many body functions, including
– pulse rate
– digestion
– sexual development
– temperature regulation
– emotion
– hunger
– Thirst
– regulation of the sleep cycle

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Pineal body

Part of the epithalamus in the diencephalon

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Basal ganglia

(Basal nuclei) structures located deep within the cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain that okay an important role in coordination of motor movement and posture

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Limbic system

Structures within the cerebrum and diencephalon that influence emotions, motivation, mood, and sensation of pain and pleasure

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Pons

The portion of the brainstem that lies below the midbrain and contains nerve fibers that affect sleep and respirations

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Medulla oblongata

The inferior portion of the midbrain, which serves as a conduction pathway for both ascending and descending nerve tracts

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Cerebellum

The region of the brain essential in coordinating muscle movements of the body

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Cerebellum peduncles

One of the three bands of nerve fibers through which the cerebellum communicates with other regions of the central nervous system

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Stroke

Brain damage typically resulting from a disruption of the circulation to the brain, causing abnormal neurologic findings

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Embolic stroke

Result of a blood clot that arises in the heart because of the cardiac rhythm disorder such as atrial fibrillation

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Transient ischemic attack

An episode of a neurologic impairment that lasts less than 24 hours and represents a warning sign of an impending stroke

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Meninges

A set of three tough membranes, Dura matter, arachnoid, and Pia matter, that encloses the entire brain and spinal cord

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Meningitis

An inflammation of the meninges and CSF, usually caused by infection

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Dura mater

The outermost of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord; it is the toughest membrane

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Pia mater

The innermost of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord; it rests directly on the brain and spinal cord

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Arachnoid

The middle membrane of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges

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Subarachnoid space

The space located between the pia mater and the arachnoid in which the CSF is contained

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Subarachnoid hemorrhage

A hemorrhage into the brain tissues beneath the arachnoid membrane

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Lumbar puncture

A needle insertion through the vertebral canal into the subarachnoid space to obtain a specimen of CSF

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Spinal tap

Same as lumbar puncture

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Choroid plexus

Specialized cells within hollow areas in the ventricles of the brain that produce CSF

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Ventricles

Specialized fluid-filled areas in the brain

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hydrocephalus

A birth defect result from a blockage in the ventricles that causes CSF to build up, Denning the cortex and causing severe brain damage

Obstruction to the flow of CSF results in increased pressure within the brain tissue, dilation of the ventricles, and compression of the brain

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Spinal cord

An extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body; it lies inside of and is protected by the spinal canal

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Foramen magnum

A large opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord exits the brain

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Cauda equina

Numerous individual nerve roots that extend from the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebra

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Vertebral canal

The bony canal formed by vertebrae that houses and protects the spinal cord

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Tracts

Pathways within the spinal cord that contains nerves

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Sciatica

Pain and muscle weakness that travels from the back, into the buttocks, and along the leg into the foot as a result of irritation of the sciatic nerve or lumbar spinal nerve root

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Ascending tracts

Fibers that carry sensory information from the periphery to the brain; also called Afferent tracts

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Action potential

An electrochemical event associated with cell membrane depolarization where stimulation of a nearby cell could cause excitation of another cell

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Descending tracts

Fibers that carry motor impulses from the brain to the fibers of the peripheral nervous system; also called efferent tracts

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Anterior spinothalamic tracts

Ascending fiber tracts that carry information to the brain about light touch, pressure, and tickling and itching sensation.

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Lateral spinothalamic tracts

Ascending tracts that carry information to the brain about pain and temperature

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Spinocerebellar tracts

Ascending tracts that carry information regarding body posturing (proprioception) to the cerebellum

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Proprioception

Information about the body's position and of its parts in relation to itself, to one another, and to the pull of gravity

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Corticospinal tracts

Descending tracts that coordinate movements, especially of the hands

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Vestibulospinal tracts

Descending tracts involved in involuntary body movements

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Reticulospinal tracts

Descending tracts that are involved in involuntary body movements

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Peripheral nervous system

The portion of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 11 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves; these nerves may be sensory, motor, or connecting nerves

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Ganglia

Collections of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system

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Spinal nerves

Thirty one pairs of nerves each responsible for sending and receiving sensory and motor messages to and from the central nervous system from a portion of the body.

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Rootlets

Small nerves

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Ventral root

One of two roots of a spinal nerve that is formed from six to eight rootlets

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Dorsal root

One of two roots of a spinal nerve that passes posteriorly into the spinal cord and contains the dorsal root ganglion

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Dorsal root ganglion

A ganglion in the dorsal root of each spinal nerve

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Intervertebral foramen

Openings between successive vertebrae through which nerves exit the vertebral column

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Sensory nerves

Nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, and other modalities from the body to the central nervous system

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Afferent nerve

Nerves that send information to the brain; also called sensory nerves

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Dermatome

An area of skin that corresponds to the sensory distribution of a specific cranial or spinal nerve

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Motor nerves

Nerves that carry commands from the brain to the muscle; also called efferent nerves

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Efferent nerves

Nerves that carry commands from the brain to peripheral muscles; also called motor nerves

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Neuromuscular junction

The receptor on the muscle for nerve impulses

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Plexuses

Complex networks made up by the combination of the main portions of the spinal nerves

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Peripheral nerves

Nerves that arise from the different plexuses to branch and supply motor functions to and convey sensory information from many areas of the body

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Curare

An agent that blocks transmission of neural motor impulses at the neuromuscular junction

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Neuromuscular blockers

A group of drugs derived from curare that are used in anesthesia to induce muscle relaxation

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Brachial plexus

The plexus of the spinal nerves that consists of nerves C5 to T1 and innervate a the shoulder and upper extremities

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Axillary nerve

One of the major nerves emanating from the brachial plexus;

it supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles, enabling arm abduction and lateral rotation

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Radial nerve

One of the major nerves in the upper extremity, it supplied muscles that

Extend the elbow (brachioradialis and triceps brachi)

Supinate the forearm (supinator)

Extend the wrist (extensor carpi muscles), fingers (extensor digitorun), and thumb

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Musculocutaneous nerve

A nerve in the upper extremity that innervates muscles that flex the shoulder and elbow (coracobranchialis, biceps branchii, brachialis)

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Median nerve

The nerve in the brachial plexus that innervates the pronator muscles of the forearm, as well as those that flex the

wrist (flexor carpi muscles and palmar is longus)

fingers (flexor digitorum muscles)

Thumb (flexor pollicis longus)

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Ulnar nerve

The nerve in the arm that innervates the muscles that flex the

wrist (flexor carpi ulnaris)

fingers (flexor digitorum muscles)

and abduct and adduct the fingers and thumb

(interossei, adductor pollicis, and abductor pollicis)

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Adulatory nerve - sensory distribution

Innervates a small patch of skin on the lateral border of the proximal arm.

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Radial nerve - sensory innervation

Posterior arm and forearm

Lateral 2/3rds of the dorsum of the hand

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Musculocutaneous - sensory innervation

Lateral surface of forearm

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Ulnar nerve - sensory innervation

Medial 1/3rd of the hand

Little finger

Medial 1/2 of ring finger

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Median nerve - sensory innervation

Lateral 2/3rds of palm of hand including lateral half of the ring finger

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Lumbosacral plexus

A combination of the lumbar plexus and, sacral plexus and the coccygeal foot

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Obturator nerve

A nerve emanating from the lumbosacral plexus that innervate the muscles that adduct the thigh (adductor muscles and gracilis) and rotate it laterally (obturator externus)

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Femoral nerve

Branch of the lumbosacral plexus that innervates the muscles that flex the hip (psoas major and sartorius) and extend the knee (rectus femoris and the vastus muscles)

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Tibial nerve

The nerve in the leg that innervates the muscles that
extend the hip and flex the knee (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and popliteus)

plantar flex the ankle (gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, and tibialis posterior)

flex the toes (flexor muscles)

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Common peroneal nerve

A major nerve of the leg, providing sensation to the lateral leg and dorsum of the foot and motor activity to hip extensors, knee flexors, ankle Dorsiflexors, and toe extensors

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Sciatic nerve

The longest peripheral nerve in the body, formed by the combination of the common peroneal nerve and the tibial nerve

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Deep peroneal nerve

A component and branch of the common peroneal nerve that innervates of the muscles of the Dorsiflex the ankle and extend the toes

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Superficial peroneal nerve

The nerve in the leg that innervates the muscles of foot Eversion