Chapter 1- Intro to A&P Flashcards Preview

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Anatomy

The study of form/structure

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Palpation

Feeling with hands (ex: pulse)

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Auscultation

Listening to natural sounds of the body (heart, lungs)

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Percussion

Tapping for echo sounds- reveals abnormal pockets of air/fluid

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Physiology

The study of function

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Properties of life

Cellular organization, biochemical unity (proteins, lipids, carbs, DNA), metabolism, responsiveness, development

BORDM

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Catabolism

Breaking bond; breaking things down to release energy

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Anabolism

Making bond; synthesis that requires energy to go into chemical bonds

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Excrete

Only used for urine/feces

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Secretion

Tears, sweat, etc.

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Pathology

Study of disease (Patho- means sick/ill)

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Reductionism

Suggests that a human body can be understood by studying its simpler components

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Holism

Suggest that there are properties possessed by the whole organism that are not apparent from the study of its parts, such as psychological factors

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The inductive method of the scientific method

Involves making numerous observations and then forming generalizations and predictions

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The hypothetico-deductive method

Begins with the formulating of a hypothesis followed by a deduction.

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Scientific fact

Observation

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Law of nature

Generalization supported by much scientific evidence

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Theory

Well-substantiated statement designed to explain a natural phenomenon (simple event)

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Dynamic (changing) equilibrium

Balanced change

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Feedback loops

General name for these mechanisms which alter the original changes that triggered them

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Extrinsic regulation

Involves nervous or endocrine (hormone) systems

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Hormones

Chemical messengers produced in one part of the body having an effect in another (target)

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Negative feedback

Main way body returns to stable conditions (homeostasis); ex: thermostat; vasoconstriction/vasodilatation of blood vessels to exchange heat with outside environment

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Integumentary organ system

Protect tissues, regulate body temp, support sensory receptors (ex: skin, hair, nails, sweat glands)

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Skeletal system

Provide framework, protect soft tissue, provide attachments for muscles, produce red blood cells (bones, ligaments, cartilage)

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Muscular system

Cause movements, maintain posture, produce body heat (muscles)

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Nervous system

Detect changes, receive and interrupt sensory info, stimulate muscles and glands (brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs)

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Endocrine system

Control metabolic activities (glands that secrete hormones (pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, etc.)

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Cardiovascular

Move blood through blood vessels and transport substances through body (heart, arteries, capillaries, veins)

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Lymphatic

Return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection (lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen)

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Zygote

Fusion of sperm and egg

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What is the main function of sweating?

To cool off

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Assimilation

Becomes part of your body

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Prokaryotic cell

More primitive; no nuclear membrane; genetic material is in cytoplasm just not protected by nuclear membrane

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Eukaryotic cell

Have nuclear membranes

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What is unique about red blood cells?

When they are being synthesized in bone marrow, they have a nucleus. However, once they become red blood cells, they no longer have a nucleus or genetic material

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What's the one part of the body that has many nuclei in one single cell?

Muscle

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Auto feedback

Body automatically does "it"; don't have to think about it

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Negative feedback

Main way body returns to stable conditions; vasodilation/constriction to exchange heat with environment


Stops a process; we make things but need to know when to stop making them

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Positive feedback

Self- amplifying cycle for quick results

Alot of times this is harmful; tells "it" to keep going

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Dolton (atomic mass unit (amu))

Mass of one proton; structure of nucleus (protons neutrons electrons)

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Denatured enzyme

Affected by pH or temperature; when a protein changes shape and can no longer functioning.

functioning -----> nonfunctioning

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Biochemical unity

All living things contain similar components: proteins, lipids, carbs, and DNA; unique to living materials or those of biological origin

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Metabolism

All physical and chemical changes that occur within living cells either catabolism or anabolism; assists in maintenance of homeostasis

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Responsiveness

Excitability via detention of a change in conditions; detection by cell (eye, taste) reaction to stress via receptors may cause an action by an effector (muscle, gland)

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Development

Change in form and/or function over lifetime

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Growth

Increase in size

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Differentiation

Non specialized ➡️ specialization

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When is a person declared legally dead?

When they don't show brain waves for 30mins, has no reflexes, and no heartbeat or respiration without assistance

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Organism

Single complete individual

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Organ system

Group of organs; unique purpose

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Tissues

Group of similar cells and non-living producers serving a specific function; may form a discrete region of an organ

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What are the 4 major classes of tissue

Muscular, nervous, epithelial, connective

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Cells

Smallest unit of an organism capable of performing all basic functions of life; surrounded by membrane

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Organelles

Microscopic cellular structures that carry out individual functions

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Molecules

Make up all cellular components; comprised of atoms

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reductionism

Suggests that a human body can be understood by studying its simpler components

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Holman

Suggests that there are properties possessed by the whole organism that are not apparent from the study of its parts, such as psychological factors

Treating the whole person not just individual symptoms

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What's a way to illuminate experimenter bias?

Double-blind method in which neither the physician not the patient know which treatment was received (only head scientist knows)

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Phenomenon

An event

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Homeostasis

The body's ability to maintain relatively constant internal conditions and to return to those if upset


Not static or exact (an acceptable range)

Dynamic (changing) equilibrium- balanced change; feedback loops

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Feedback loops

General name for these mechanisms which later the original changes that triggered them

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Extrinsic regulation

Nervous/endocrine systems

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Hormones

Chemical messengers produced in one part of the body having effect in another

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Supine

Palms face forward (anterior)

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Prone

Palms face rear (posterior)