Critical Thinking (5 questions)
1. ID assertion or action. 2. "What is evidence for and against action?" 3. "What does the bulk of evidence point to?" 4. "What other explanations or conclusions are possible?" 5. Keep open mind for new evidences."
Most extreme answer are ALWAYS wrong!
We communicate due to (needs)
Physical needs Identity needs Social needs Practical needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is
People motivated to achieve certain needs. Once it been fulfilled, they move on for the next one and so on.
People generate meaning using verbal/nonverbal messages.
5 Levels of Communication: 1. Intrapersonal- 2. Interpersonal- 3. Group- 4. Public- 5. Mass-
Intrapersonal- talking to yourself. Interpersonal- communicate btwn 2 or 3 individuals. Groups- 4-12 people. Public- 1 toward many audiences. Mass- watching, viewing speech on TV.
Meaning is created as people communicate. DISADVANTAGE.
Transactional (synergetic model)
Highlights individual, societal, and culture affecting communication process. ADVANTAGE.
Components of Synergetic model: 1. Sender-receiver 2. Encoding 3. Decoding 4. Messages Symbol
1. Sender-receiver: participants. 2. Encoding- Ideas--->messages. 3. Decoding- Receive ideas to interpret its meaning. 4. Messages- building block of communication. Symbol- this thing represents something else.
Messages carried 2 types of meaning: 1. Content meaning- 2. Relationship meaning-
Content- concrete meaning, and the meaning that goes along w/ the message that triggers emotion. Ex: mom- female parent, role-model, warmth... Relationship- Describe what message conveys about relationship btwn 2 parties.
Medium in which message is transmitted through. Ex: Skype, email, Facebook...
ANYTHING interfere w/ the quality of message. External- AC noise. Internal- sleepiness, hunger.
Response to a message Ex: Nodding, laughing.
Physical surroundings of a communication events.
Personal experiences and ethnics-
The standards of what is right and wrong.
Communication influenced by: 1. Individual force- 2. Societal force- 3. Culture- 4. Context-
Individual force- demographic characteristics: age, race... Societal force- Individual characteristics that are highly valued: young, white... Culture- Learning pattern of perception, values and behavior shared by a group of people. Change over time. Context- Setting where interaction occurs.
Communication can be intentional or unintentional. ALL message have a content: Denotative meaning Connotative meaning ALL message have a relational meaning
Irreversible. Unrepeatable. Culture-specific.
Communication Competence (How)
Effective and Appropriate. No "best way" to communicate Situational Can be learn.