Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation Flashcards Preview

Advanced Anatomy & Physiology > Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation Deck (33):
1

The Integumentary

- External body covering
- Protects tissues
- Synthesizes
- Site of cutaneous receptors

2

The Skeletal

- Protects body organs
- Framework for muscles
- Blood cells formed w/ in bones
- Stores minerals

3

The Muscular

- Locomotion
- Facial Expressions
- Posture
- Heat

4

The Nervous

- Control center
- Fast-acting
- Responds to internal/ external changes

5

The Endocrine

- Glands secrete hormones
- Growth
- Reproduction
- Nutrient Use

6

The Cardiovascular

- Blood vessels transport
- Carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
- Carries nutrients and wastes

7

The Lymphatic

- Gathers fluid leaked from blood vessel
- Disposes debris in the lymphatic
- Houses white blood cells
- Attacks foreign substances in the body

8

The Respiratory

- Stores blood supplied w/ oxygen
- Takes in oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
- Exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs

9

The Digestive

- Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells
- Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces

10

The Urinary

- Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
- Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of food

11

The Reproductive

- Function is production of offspring
- Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract
- Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
- The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus
- Mammary glands of female breaths produce milk to nourish the newborn

12

Gross Anatomy

- Regional
- Directional

13

Regional Terms

- Axial region
- Appendicular region

14

Directional Terms

- Body in anatomical position
- terms of directions

15

Superior (cranial)

Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above

16

Inferior (caudal)

Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below

17

Anterior (ventral)

Toward or at the front of the body; in front of

18

Posterior (dorsal)

Toward or at the back of the body; behind

19

Medial

Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

20

Lateral

Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of

21

Intermediate

Between a more medial and a more lateral structure

22

Proximal

Closer to the origin of the body pat or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

23

Distal

Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

24

Superficial (external)

Toward or at the body surface

25

Deep (internal)

Away from the body surface; more internal

26

Body Planes

- Coronal (frontal)
- Median (midagittal)
- Transverse
- Oblique

27

Coronal (frontal)

Vertically and divides body into anterior and posterior parts

28

Median (midagittal)

Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline

29

Transverse

Runs horizontally and divides body into superior or inferior parts

30

Body Cavities

1) Dorsal
- Cranial
- Vertebral
2) Ventral
3) Thoracic & Abdominal: ❤️ and lungs
4) Abdominal Pelvic: digestive organs, kidneys, bladder and RP organs
5) Oral, Nasal, Orbital, Synovial and Middle Ear

31

What is the most common form of regulation in living organisms?

Negative

32

Negative F.B.

The response reduces the initial stimulus

33

Positive F.B.

The response increases the initial stimulus until action is done