Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive Flashcards Preview

Advanced Anatomy & Physiology > Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive Deck (147):
1

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

2

Energy

The capacity to do work, or to put matter in motion

3

Kinetic Energy

Energy in action

4

Potential Energy

Stored energy

5

What is the connection between matter and energy?

They are inseparable; Matter is substance and energy is the mover of the substance

6

Chemical Energy

The form stored in the bonds of chemical substances
1) Atoms rearrange
2) PE is released
3) KE

7

Describe Eating

1) Food E is captured temporarily in the bonds of a chemical called ATP
2) ATP bonds are broken, PE is released for cellular work

8

Electrical Energy

Results from the movement of charged particles
- Electrical currents (ions move across cell membranes)
- Nerve impulses
- Pumping blood

9

Mechanical Energy

Energy directly moving matter

10

Radiant Energy/ Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that travels in waves

11

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Waves that are varied in length

12

Energy Conversions

- Energy can easily convert
- Inefficient: Initial energy is always "lost" in the environment as heat (unusable energy)
- All conversions give off heat: helps with homeostasis

13

Elements

Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means

14

Atoms

Identical particles or building blocks of elements

15

Physical Properties

Those we can detect with our senses or measure

16

Chemical Properties

Pertain to the way atoms interact with other atoms

17

Nucleus

(1) Control center of a cell; contains genetic material; (2) center of an atom; contains protons and neutrons

18

Protons

Positive electrical charge

19

Neutron

Neutral, so nucleus is positive overall

20

What are the connections between protons, neutrons and the nucleus

1) Protons and neutrons are heavy subatomic particles of the nucleus
2) Nucleus is dense= 99.99% mass of the atom

21

Electrons

Negative charge equal in strength to the positive charge of the proton

22

What are all atoms charged?

Neutral; the # of protons in an atom is balanced by its # of electrons

23

Planetary Model

A simplified model of atomic structure

24

Orbital

Regions around the nucleus in which a given electron or electron pair is likely to be found most of the time

25

Orbital Model

More useful for predicting the chemical behavior of atoms
- predicts probable regions of greatest electron density by denser shading (electron cloud)

26

Atomic number

Equal to the # of protons (electrons)

27

Mass number

The sum of the masses of its protons and neutrons

28

Isotopes

2 or more structural variations of elements that have the same # of protons and electrons but a different # of neutrons

29

Atomic Weights

An average of the relative weights of all the isotopes of an element
- Atomic # = Mass # of most abundant isotope

30

Radioactivity

The process of atomic decaying spontaneously into more stable forms because of unstable heavier isotopes

31

Radioisotopes

Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity

32

Quarks

Smaller particles of the nucleus that associate one way to form protons and another neutrons
- holds nuclear particles together and is weaker in heavier isotopes

33

Molecule

A combination of 2 or more atoms of the same element held together by chemical bonds

34

Compound

2 or more different kinds of atoms bind, they form molecules of a compound
- Chemically Pure
- Identical Molecules

35

Mixtures

Substances composed of 2 or more components physically intermixed

36

What are the 3 basic types of mixtures?

1) Solutions
2) Colloids
3) Suspension

37

Solutions

Homogeneous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids or solids
- Particles are very tiny
- Do not settle
- Scatter light

38

Solvent

The substance in the greatest amount (or dissolving medium)
- Usually liquid

39

Solute

Substances present in smaller amounts (dissolved in the solvent)

40

True Solutions

Contains gases, liquids or solids dissolved in water
- Usually transparent
- Ex: Saline Solution, Mix: Glucose/ Water, and Mineral Water
- Solutes are minute
- Do not settle out/ scatter light

41

How do you describe True Solutions?

By their concentration
- College/ Hospital: percent (parts per 100 parts) of the solute in the total solution (water is the assumed solvent)
- Blood Concentration: Milligrams per deciliter
- Molarity

42

Molarity

Moles per liter, M
- Complicated but useful

43

Mole

Equal to any element or compounds atomic weight or molecular weight

44

Molecular weight

Sum of atomic weights

45

Avogadro's Number

6.02 X 10(23)

46

Colloids/ Emulsions

Heterogeneous mixtures
- Translucent/ Milky
- Large particles
- Scatter light
- Do not settle

47

Sol-gel Transformation

To change reversibly from a fluid (sol) state to a more solid (gel) state
- Ex: Jell-O
• Underlie important cell activities

48

Suspensions

Heterogeneous mixtures
- Very large particles
- Often visible solutes that settle out
- Ex: Blood

49

What are the differences between mixtures and compounds?

1) No chemical bonding in mixtures (only physically intermixed)
2) Mixtures can be separated by physical means
Compounds---> Chemical means
3) Mixtures: Homogeneous/ Heterogeneous
Compounds: Homogeneous

50

Chemical Bonds

An energy relationship between the electrons of the reacting atoms

51

Electron Shells

The regions of space of an atom around the nucleus where electrons are forming an electron cloud

52

Valence Shell

An atoms outermost energy level containing the electrons that are chemically reactive

53

What are the 3 major types of chemical bonds?

1) Ionic
2) Covalent
3) Hydrogen

54

Ions

Charged particles that form when the balance of + and - are lost

55

Ionic Bond

A Chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another

56

Electron Acceptor

The atom that gains one or more electrons

57

Anion

The negative net charge in an electron acceptor

58

Electron Donor

The atom that loses its electrons

59

Cation

A positive net charge in an electron donor

60

Describe an Ionic Bond

Both anions and cations are formed whenever electron transfer between atoms occur. Opposite charges attract so these ions tend to stay close together= Ionic bond

61

Crystals

Large arrays of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds

62

Covalent Bond

Electrons sharing produces molecules in which the shared electrons occupy a single orbital common in both atoms

63

What are the 2 types of molecules in covalent bonds?

1) Polar
2) Non Polar

64

Non Polar molecule

Equal sharing of electrons
- Don't have separate + and - poles of charge

65

Polar molecule

Unequal sharing of electrons

66

Electronegativity

Electron hungry and attract electrons very strongly

67

Electropositive

Atoms with only 1 or 2 valence electron shells
- Potassium
- Sodium

68

What is another name for a polar molecule?

Dipole

69

Hydrogen Bonds

When a hydrogen atom, already covalently linked to one electronegative atom, is attracted by another electronegative atom, so that a "bridge" forms between them

70

Chemical Reaction

Occurs whenever chemical bonds are formed, rearranged or broken

71

Subscript

Indicates that atoms are joined by chemical bonds

72

Prefix

Denotes the # of unjointed atoms or molecules

73

Reactants

The # and kinds of the interacting substances

74

Products

The chemical composition of the result of the reaction

75

Relative Proportions

Balanced equations indicated the relative proportion of each reactant and product

76

Molecular Formula

Representation of a product in a molecule

77

Synthesis/ Combination Reaction

Involves bond formation
A + B----> AB

78

Anabolic(sm)

Energy requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances

79

Name an example of synthesis reaction

Amino acids are joined together to form a protein molecule
- smaller particles of bonded together to form larger, more complex molecules

80

Decomposition Reaction

Occurs when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules
AB----> A + B
- Reverse Synthesis

81

Catabolic(sm)

Process in which living cells breakdown substances into simpler substances

82

Exchange/ Displacement Reaction

Involve both synthesis and decomposition bonds of both made and broken. An exchange reaction occurs when ATP reacts with glucose and transfers it end phosphate group to glucose forming glucose phosphate at the same time, the ATP becomes ADP this important it reaction occurs whenever glucose into the body cells and is effectively traps the glucose fuel molecule inside the cell

83

Oxidation-Reduction/ Redox Reaction

Decomposition reactions in that they are the basis of all the actions in which food fuels all broken down for energy (ATP). Electrons are exchanged between the reactants. The reactant losing that electrons is the electron donor and is said to be oxidized. The reactant taking up the transferred electrons is the electron acceptor and it said to be reduced

84

Exergonic Reactions

Reactions that release energy. These reactions yield products with less energy than the initial reactants along with energy that can be harvested for other uses with few exceptions catabolic and oxidative reactions on exergonic

85

Endergonic

The products of energy absorbing. Contain more tensional energy in the chemical bonds than did the reactants
- Ex: Anabolic Reactions

86

What is the reversibility represented in a chemical reaction?

Double arrows
- when arrows differ in length the longer arrow indicates the major direction in which the reaction proceeds
- when the arrows are of equal length, the molecule of the product forms one molecule, breaks down releasing the reactants A & B. This chemical reaction is in a state of chemical equilibrium

87

What happens when the chemical equilibrium is reached?

There is no for the net change in the amounts of reactants and products unless more of either are added to the mix

88

What factors influence the rate of chemical reactions?

1) Temperature
2) Concentration
3) Particle Size
4) Catalyst

89

Temperature

Increasing the temperature of a substance increases the kinetic energy of its particles and the force of their collisions

90

Concentration

Occurs when the reacting particles are present in high numbers because the chance of successful collisions is greater. As the concentration of the reactants declines, the reaction slows. Chemical equilibrium eventually occurs.

91

Particle Size

Smaller particles move faster than larger ones and tend to collide more frequently and more forcefully

92

Catalysts

Substances that increase the weight of chemical reactions without themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product

93

What are biological catalysts called?

Enzymes

94

Biochemistry

The study of the chemical composition and reactions of living matter

95

What 2 Major categories do the chemicals in the body fall into?

1) Organic
2) Inorganic

96

Organic Compounds

- Contains carbon
- Covalently bonded
- Many are large

97

Inorganic Compounds

All other chemicals in the body (not carbon)
- Ex: Water, Salts, many acids and bases

98

What are the 5 properties of water?

1) High Heat Capacity
2) High Heat of Vaporization
3) Polar Solvent
4) Reactivity
5) Cushioning

99

High Heat Capacity

Absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before changing appreciably in temperature itself.
Prevents sudden changes in temperature caused by external factors or by internal conditions that release heat rapidly
- External: Sun, Wind Exposure
- Internal: Vigorous muscle activity
Redistributes heat among body tissues ensuring temperature homeostasis

100

High Heat of Vaporization

When water evaporates it requires large amounts of heat being absorbed to break the hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules together
- Ex: Perperation

101

Polar Solvent

Because water molecules are polar they orient themselves with their slightly negative and toward the positive ends of the solutes and vice versa first attracting the solute molecules and then surrounding them. This polarity of water explains why ionic compounds and other small reactive molecules dissociate in water there ions separating from each other and becoming evenly scattered in the water forming to solutions

102

What are the water molecule layers called?

Hydration layers

103

Hydration Layers

Forms layers around large charged particles, such as proteins shielding them from the effects of other charged substances in the vicinity and preventing them from settling out of solution

104

What are protein-water mixtures called?

Biological Colloids
- Ex: Blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid

105

Reactivity

Water is an important reactant in many chemical reactions

106

Cushioning

By forming a resilient cushion around certain body organs, water helps protect them from physical trauma

107

Salt

An ionic compound containing cations other than H+ and anions other than the hydroxyl ion (OH-)

108

What happens when salts dissolve into water?

They dissociate into their component ions
- Ex: Sodium Sulfate, Na2SO4----> 2 Na+ ions and 1 SO4 2- ion

109

Electrolyte

Substances that conduct an electrical current in solution

110

Polyatomic ions

Groups of atoms that bear and overall charge (Ex: Sulfate)

111

What are the most commonly found salts in the body?

- NaCl
- CaCO3 (calcium carbonate)
- KCl (Potassium Chloride)

112

Acids

A substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts
- Proton Donor
- Sour taste
- can react with (dissolve) many metals
- Ex: Acetic Acid (HC2H3O2/ HAc), carbonic acid (H2CO3)
- The hydrogen is always first in an acidic molecule!!!!!

113

Proton Donor

When a hydrogen ion is just a hydrogen nucleus

114

What determines the acidity of a solution?

The concentration of protons

115

Bases


- Bitter taste
- Feel slippery
- Proton acceptors
- Inorganic bases: Hydroxides

116

Proton Acceptors

Take up hydrogen ions (H+) in detectable amounts

117

Hydroxyl ions

Ions liberated when a hydroxide is dissolved in water

118

Bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)

An important base in the body, particularly abundant in blood

119

Ammonia

A common waste product of protein breakdown in the body (also base)
It has 1 pair of unshared electrons that strongly attracts protons
By accepting a proton, ammonia becomes an ammonium ion
NH3 + H+ -----> NH4+

120

pH units

The concentration units used to measure the relative concentration of hydrogen ions in various body fluids

121

Who created the pH scale?

Danish biochemist and beer brewer Sören Sörensen in 1909

122

Neutralization Reaction

When acids and bases on mixed, because the joining of H+ and OH- form water neutralizes the solution

123

Buffers

The chemical systems of homeostasis that regulates acid-base balance

124

Hydroxyl

-OH

125

Carbonyl

=aldehydes; ketones

126

Carboxyl

-COOH
carboxylic acids

127

Amino

-NH2
amines

128

Sulfhydryl

-SH
thiols

129

Phosphate

-PO4
organic carbohydrates

130

Dehydration Reaction

Process by which a large molecule is synthesized by removing water and covalently bonding smaller molecules together; water splitting 2 molecules

131

Hydrolysis

Process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles; water leaves causing a junction

132

Monomer

1 subunit

133

Polymers

Many subunits

134

What is the major function of Carbohydrates?

Immediate energy source; some structural support

135

What are the major functions of a Protein?

1) Structure
2) Signaling (hormones)
3) Enzymes/ Catalysts
4) Transport

136

Enzymes

- Substrate specific
- Denatured by heat, pH extremes, chemicals, electricity, radiation

137

What do Proteins contain?

• An amino and carboxyl group
• Peptide Bonds

138

What are the Macromolecules of Carbohydrates?

- Disaccharides (sucrose)
- Polysaccharides (starch, glycogen)

139

What are the major functions of Lipids?

1) Cell membrane
2) Insulation
3) Nerve transmission
4) Energy Reserve

140

Saturated Fats

• All single bonds
• Animal products

141

Unsaturated Fats

• Double or triple bond
• Plant products

142

What is the major function of Nucleic Acids?

Determines the synthesis of proteins; control the cell (information)

143

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid
• Double strand
• Sugar: Dioxyribose
• Bases: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosins
• Carries instructions to make proteins
• Permanent

144

RNA

Ribonucleic acid
• Single strand
• Sugar: ribose
• Bases: Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine
• Works to make the proteins
• Temporary

145

What are the building blocks of Organic Phosphates?

Adenine and Phosphate

146

What is the major function of Organic Phosphates?

Cell's energy molecule

147

When are Organic Phosphates made?

Cellular Respiration