Chapter 4: Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Tissue Deck (74):
1

Tissues

Groups of cells in similar structure that perform common or related function

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Histology

Study of tissue

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What are the 4 basic types of tissues?

1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Muscle
4) Nervous Tissue

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What steps do you need to do to look at a tissue in detail under a microscope?

1) Fixed (Preserved)
2) Sectioned (sliced)
3) Stained (colored)

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Epithelial Tissue

A sheet of cells that covers body surfaces or cavities

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What are the 2 main forms of epithelial tissue?

1) Covering and lining epithelia
2) Glandular epithelia

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What are the main functions of epithelial tissue?

- Protection
- Absorption
- Secretion

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What are the special characteristics of Epithelial Tissues?

1. Polarity
2. Specialized contacts
3. Supported by connective tissues
4. Avascular, but innervated
5. Regeneration

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Polarity

- Apical (top)
- Basal (bottom)

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Specialized contacts

Special cell contacts including desmosomes and right junctions

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Supported by connective tissues

- Basal surface is connected to connective tissue
- Gives structural support, nutrients and helps resist epithelial tears

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Avascular, but innervated

- Connective tissue supplies blood because there are no blood vessels in the epithelial tissue
- There are many nerve endings in epithelial tissue

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Regeneration

- Epithelial cells are often destroyed, so they are easily replaced and undergo mitosis often
- Some cells are exposed to friction, some to hostile substances, resulting in damage
• Ex: Stomach lining

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Simple Epithelial

Involved in absorption, secretion or filtration processes

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Simple Squamous Epithelialium

Cells are flattened laterally and cytoplasm is sparse
- Function: rapid diffusion
• Ex: lungs, blood vessels

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

- Function: secretion and absorption
• Ex: smallest ducts of glands, kidney tubules

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

Some cells have microvilli (absorption), and some have cilia (movement)
Some layers contain mucus-secreting goblet cells (secretion)
- Function: in absorption, secretion and movement of mucus, enzymes and other substances
• Ex: in small intestines, gallbladder

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Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium

Many cells are ciliated
- Function: involved in secretion, particularly of mucus, and also in movement of mucus via ciliary sweeping action
• Ex: trachea

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Stratified Epithelial Tissues

Involve 2 or more layers of cells
New cells regenerate from below
• Basal cells divide and migrate toward surface
• More durable than simple epithelia because protection is the major role

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

• Most widespread of stratified epithelia
• Free surface is squamous, with deeper cuboidal or columnar layers
• Located in area of high wear and tear (ex: skin)
• Keratinized cells found in skin; nonkeratinized cells are found in moist linings

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Glandular Epithelia

Classified by:
1. Site of product release
2. Relative number of cells forming the gland

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Gland

One or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion

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Endocrine

- Internally secreting
- Ductless glands
• Ex: hormones

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Exocrine

- Externally secreting
- More common and have ducts
• Ex: Sweat, salivary

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What are the sites of product release of Glandular Epithelia?

1) Endocrine
2) Exocrine

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What are the "relative number of cells forming the gland"?

• Unicellular
• Multicellular

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Unicellular

• Ex: goblet cells

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Multicellular

3 Types:
• Merocrine
• Holocrine
• Apocrine

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Merocrine

Secrete using exocytosis (sweat gland)

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Holocrine

Accumulate products than rupture sebaceous oil glands

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Apocrine

Accumulates products within and then only the top rupture (possibly mammary glands)

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What are the major functions of connective tissue?

Binding and support, protecting, insulating, storing reserve fuel, and transporting substances (blood)

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What are the 4 main classes of connective tissue?

- Connective tissue proper
- Cartilage
- Bone
- Blood

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What are the 3 common characteristics of Connective Tissue?

1. Common embryonic
2. Varying degrees of vascularity
3. Cells are suspended/ embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM)

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Common Embryonic Origin

All arise from mesenchyme tissue as their tissue of origin

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Varying degrees of vascularity

Different amounts of blood vessels, for example, cartilage is avascular, bone is highly vascularized

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Cells are suspended/ embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM)

• ECM is a protein-sugar mesh
• Matrix supports cells to make them durable

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What are the 3 main structural elements of connective tissues?

• Ground substance
• Fibers
• Cells

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What elements make up the extracellular matrix?

Ground Substance and Fibers

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Ground Substance

Unstructured gel-like material that fills space between cells
• Medium through which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and cells

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What are the components of Ground Substance?

• Interstitial fluid
• Cell adhesion proteins ("glue" for attachment)
• Proteglycans (sugar proteins)
• Water

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What are the 3 types of connective tissue fibers?

• Collagen
• Elastic Fibers
• Reticular

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Collagen

Strongest and most abundant type of fiber

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Elastic Fiber

Allow for stretch and recoil

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Reticular

• Short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers
Branching forms networks that offer more "give"

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Cells

"Blast" cells
- Immature form of cells that actively secretes ground substance and ECM fibers

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What are the 3 types of "Blast" cells?

1. Fibroblasts
2. Chondroblasts
3. Osteoblasts

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Fibroblasts

Found in connective tissue proper

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Chondroblasts

Found in cartilage

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Osteoblasts

Found in bone

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"Cyte" cells

Mature, less active form of "blast" cells, that now becomes part of and helps maintain health of matrix

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What are the other types of cells found in connective tissues?

• Fat cells
• White blood cells
• Mast cells
• Macrophages

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Fat cells

Store nutrients

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White blood cells

Tissue response to injury

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Mast cells

Initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganism story detect

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Macrophages

Phagocytic cells that "eat" dead cells, microorganisms
- function in immune system

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Connective Tissue Proper

• CT Proper: Loose connective tissue
• CR Proper: Dense connective tissue

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Loose Connective Tissue

- Areolar
- Adipose
- Reticular

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Areolar Loose Connective Tissue

Universal packaging material between other tissues; supports and binds other tissues
• Contains fibroblasts that secrete loose arrangement of mostly collagen fibers

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Adipose Loose Connective Tissue

Shock absorption, insulation, and energy storage
• Fat tissue
• Similar to areolar tissue but greater in nutrient storage
• Richly vascularized

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Reticular Loose Connective Tissue

Form a mesh-like stroma that acts as a support for blood cells in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow

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Dense Connective Tissue

Function: Very high tensile strength; can withstand high tension and stretching
• Made up of collagen fibers
• Vascularized

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What are the 3 different types of Dense Connective Tissue?

- Dense Regular
- Dense Irregular
- Elastic

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Dense regular

Very strong, stretches in one direction, found in dermis, joints, ligaments

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Dense irregular

Can stretch in multiple directions, also in the dermis

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Elastic

Very stretchy, found in some ligament and around blood vessels

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Cartilage

• Matrix secreted from chondroblasts (during growth) and chondrocytes (adults)
• Tough yet flexible material that lacks nerve fibers
• Avascular

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Avascular

Receives nutrients from membrane surrounding it (perichondrium)

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What are the 3 types of cartilage?

1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Elastic cartilage
3. Fibrocartilage

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Hyaline cartilage

Found at tips of long bones, nose, trachea, larynx, and cartilage of the ribs

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Elastic Cartilage

Found in ears and epiglottis
• Similar to Hyaline but with more elastic fibers

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Fibrocartilage

Strong so found in areas such as intervertebral discs and joints
• Properties between hyaline and dense regular tissue

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Bone

Function: supports and protects body structures; stores fat and synthesizes blood cells in cavities

• Osteoblasts produce matrix
• Osteocytes maintain the matrix
- Osteons: individual structural units

- Richly vascularized

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Blood

Function: transports and carries nutrients, wastes, gases and other substances

• Contains white blood cells and platelets
• Fibers are soluble proteins that precipitate during blood clotting