Chapter 5: Integumentary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Integumentary Deck (36):
1

What are the major organs of the Integumentary System?

- Hair
- Skin
- Nails
- Sweat Glands
- Oil Glands

2

What are the 2 distinct regions of the skin?

1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
(3. Hyperdermis)

3

Epidermis

Superficial Region; consists of epithelial tissue and is avascular

4

Dermis

Underlies epidermis; Mostly fibrous connective tissue, vascular

5

Hyperdermis

Superficial fascia; shares some skin functions
- Mostly adipose tissue that absorbs shock and insulates
- Anchors skin to underlying structures: mostly muscles

6

What are the 4 types of cells found in the Epidermis?

1. Keratinocytes
2. Melanocytes
3. Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
4. Tactile (Merkel) cells

7

Keratinocytes

Produce fibrous keratin (protein that gives skin it's protective properties)

8

Melanocytes

Produce pigment melanin, which protects the skin from UV radiation

9

Dendritic (Langerhans) cells

Macrophages that patrols deep epidermis

10

Tactile (Merkel) cells

Sensory receptors that sense touch

11

What are the 5 layers of the Epidermis?

4-5 distinct layers

1. Stratum basale
2. Stratum spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin)
5. Stratum corneum

12

Stratum Basale (basal layer)

Layer is firmly attached to dermis
- Consists of a single row of stem cells that actively divide

13

Stratum spinosum (prickly layer)

Several cell layers thick
Weblike system of intermediate prekeratin filaments
**to resist tension and pulling**
- Keratinocytes in this layer appear spikey

14

Stratum granulosum (granular layer)

4-6 cells thick, but cells are flattened, so layer is thin
- Cells die cause they're too far from connective tissue to get nutrients
**cells flatten, nuclei and organelles disintegrate**
- Keratinization begins

15

Stratum lucidum (clear layer)

Thick skin
- Made of thin, translucent band of 2 to 3 of clear, flat, dead keratinocytes

16

Stratum corneum (horny layer)

20-30 rows of flat, anucleated, keratinized dead cells
** 3/4 of epidermal thickness**

Dead cells give protection

17

Dermis

Strong, flexible connective tissue
- Contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
- Contains epidermal hair follicles, oil glands and sweat glands
Has 2 layers

18

What are the 2 layers of the dermis?

1. Papillary
2. Reticular

19

Papillary

Areolar connective tissue loosely packed to allow phagocytes to patrol for microorganisms

20

Reticular

Contains many elastic fibers and collagen fibers allowing for strength and stretch; contains lines of cleavage

21

Cleavage (tension) lines

In reticular layer are caused by many collagen fibers running parallel to skin surface
- Externally invisible

22

What are the 3 pigments that contribute to skin color?

1. Melanin
2. Carotene
3. Hemoglobin

23

Melanin

Red or brownish black
- Freckles and pigmented moles are local accumulations of melanin
**Sun exposure stimulates melanin production**

24

Carotene

Yellow to orange pigment

25

Hemoglobin

Pinkish hues in fair skin

26

What can excessive exposure to sun do to the skin?

- Elastic fibers clump
- Depress immune system
- Alterations to DNA (skin cancer)
- UV light destroys folic acid
- Photosensitivity is increased reaction to sun

27

What alterations in skin color can indicate disease?

- Cyanosis
- Erythema
- Pallor
- Jaundice

28

Cyanosis

Blue skin color- low oxygenation of hemoglobin

29

Erythema

Redness- fever, hypertension, inflammation, allergy

30

Pallor

Pale color- Anemia, low blood pressure, fear, anger

31

Jaundice

Yellow- Liver disorder

32

Hairs

Flexible strands of dead, keratinized cells
- Produced by hair follicles
- Hard keratin

33

Shaft

Area that extends above scalp, where keratinization is complete

34

Root

Area within scalp, where keratinization is still going on

35

Nails

Scale-like modifications of epidermis that contain hard keratin
- Consists of free edge, nail plate and root

36

Nail matrix

Thickened portions of bed responsible for nail growth