Chapter 1 - What is Biological Anthropology? Flashcards Preview

Anthropology 102 - Essentials of Biological Anthropology > Chapter 1 - What is Biological Anthropology? > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 - What is Biological Anthropology? Deck (29)
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1

Archaeology

Study of past societies and their cultures, especially the material remains of the past, such as tools, food remains and places where people lived

2

Artifacts

Material objects from past cultures

3

Biocultural approach

The scientific study of the interrelationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culture

4

Biological anthropology

Study of human evolution and variation, both past and current

5

Bipedalism

Walking on two feet

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Cultural anthropology

Study of cultures and societies of human beings and their very recent past.

7

Empirical

Verified through observation and experiment

8

Genome

The complete set of genetic information-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA-for an organism or species that represents all of the inheritable traits

9

Hominins

Humans and humanlike ancestors

10

Hypotheses

Testable statements that potentially explain specific phenomena observed int he natural world

11

Linguistic Anthropology

Study of languageh, especially how language is structured, the evolution of language, and the social and cultural contexts for language

12

Material Culture

The part of culture that is expressed as objects that humans use to manipulate environments

13

Morphology

Physical shape and appearance

14

Nonhoning canine

An upper canine that, as part of a nonhoning chewing mechanism, is not sharpened against the lower third premolar

15

Physical Anthropology

Also called biological anthropology

16

Primates

A group of mammals in the order of Primates that have complex behavior, varied forms of locomotion, and a unique suite of traits, including large brains, forward-facing eyes, fingernails, and reduced snouts

17

Scientific Law

A statement of fact-describing natural phenomena

18

Scientific Method

An empirical research method in which data are gathered from observations of phenomena, hypotheses are formulated and tested, and conclusions are drawn that validate or modify the original hypotheses

19

Social Learning

The capacity to learn from other humans, enabling the accumulation of knowledge across many generations

20

Sociolinguistics

The science of investigating language's social contexts

21

Terrestrial

Life-forms, including humans, that live on land versus living in water or in trees

22

Theory

Explanation as to why a natural phenomenon takes place

23

Anatomical

Pertaining to an organism's physical structure

24

Anthropology

Study of humankind, viewed from the perspective of all people and all times

25

Arboreal

Tree-dwelling, adapted to living in the trees

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Culture

Learned behavior that is transmitted from person to person

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Data

Evidence gathered to help answer questions, solve problems, and fill gaps in scientific knowledge

28

Forensic Anthropology

Scientific examination of skeletons in hope of identifying the people whose bodies they came from

29

Language

Set of written or spoken symbols that refer to things other than themselves