Chapter 3 - Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - Genetics Deck (52)
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1

Adenine

One of the nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA; pairs with Thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA

2

amino acids

Organic molecules combined in a specific sequence by the ribosomes form a protein

3

antibodies

Molecules that form as part of the primary immune response to the presence of foreign substances; they attach to the foreign antigens

4

antigens

specific proteins, on the surface of cells, that stimulate the immune system's antibody production

5

autosomes

All chromosomes, except the sex chromosomes, that occur in pairs in all somatic cells

6

coding DNA

Sequences of a gene's DNAthat are coded to produce a specific protein and are transcribed and translated during protein synthesis

7

codominance

Refers to two different alleles that are equally dominant; both are fully expressed in a heterozygote's phenotype

8

codons

The sequences of three nitrogen bases carried by mRNA that are coded to produce specific amino acids in protein synthesis

9

complementary bases

The predictable pairing of nitrogen bases in the structure of DNA and RNA, such that adenine and thymine always pair together and cytosine and guanine pair together

10

crossing-over

The process by which homologous chromosomes partially wrap around each other and exchange genetic information during meiosis

11

cytoplasm

The jellylike substance inside the cell membrane that surrounds the nucleus and in which the organelles are suspended

12

cytosine

One of the nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA; it pairs with guanine

13

diploid

A cell that has a full complement of paired chromosomes

14

epigenetic

Refers to chemical changes in the genome affecting how the underlying DNA is used in production of proteins, but without altering the DNA sequences

15

essential amino acids

Those amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body; they must be supplied by the diet

16

gametes

Sexual reproductive cells, ova, and sperm, that have a haploid number of chromosomes and that can unite with a gamete of the opposite type to form a new organism

17

genome

The complete set of genetic information for an organism or species that represents all the inheritable traits

18

genomics

The branch of genetics that studies species' genomes

19

guanine

One of the nitrogen bases that make up DNA and RNA; it pairs with cytosine

20

haplogroups

A large set of haplotypes, such as the y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA, that may be used to define a population

21

haploid

A cell that has a single set of unpaired chromosomes; half of the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell

22

haplotypes

A group of alleles that tend to be inherited as a unit due to their closely spaced loci on a single chromosome

23

heterozygous

Refers to the condition in which the two alleles of a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are different

24

homeotic genes (Hox)

Also known as homeobox genes, they are responsible for differentiating the specific segments of the body, such as the head, tail, and limbs, during the embryological development

25

homologous

Refers to each set of paired chromosomes in the genome

26

homozygous

Refers to the condition in which the two alleles of a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are the same

27

law of segregation

Mendel's first law which asserts that the two alleles for any given gene are inherited, one from each parent; during gamete production, only one of the two alleles will be present in each ovum or sperm

28

locus

The location on a chromosome of a specific gene

29

meiosis

The production of gametes through one DNA replication and two cell divisions, creating four haploid gametic cells

30

mitochondria

Energy-producing (ATP) organelles in eukaryotic cells; they possess their own independent DNA.