Chapter 4 - Genes and their evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Genes and their evolution Deck (37)
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1

Abnormal Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin altered so that it is less efficient in binding to and carrying oxygen

2

Admixture

The exchange of genetic material between two or more populations

3

Anthropogenic

Refers to any effect caused by humans

4

Balanced polymorphism

Situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a specific gene in a population

5

Capillaries

Small blood vessels between the terminal ends of arteries and the veins

6

deme

A local population of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring

7

demic diffusion

A population's movement into an area previously uninhabited by that group

8

directional selection

Selection for one allele over the other alleles, causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction

9

disruptive selection

Selection for both extremes of the phenotypic distribution; may eventually lead to a speciation event

10

endogamous

Refers to a population in which individuals breed only with other members of the population

11

equilibrium

A condition in which the system is stable, balanced, and unchanging

12

exogamouse

Refers to a population in which individuals breed only with nonmembers of their population

13

fitness

Average number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype

14

founder effect

The accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that has become isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers

15

frameshift mutation

The change in a gene due to the insertion or deletion of one or more nitrogen bases, which causes the subsequent triplets to be rearranged and the codons to be read incorrectly during translation

16

G6PD

An enzyme that aids in the proper functioning of red blood cells; its deficiency, a genetic condition, leads to hemolytic anemia

17

gene pool

All the genetic information in the breeding population

18

Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium

A mathematical model in population genetics that reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes; it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes

19

Hemoglobinopathies

A group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobin

20

Hemolytic anemias

Conditions of insufficient iron in the blood due to the destruction of red blood cells resulting from genetic blood diseases, toxins, or infectious pathogens

21

Huntington's chorea

A rare genetic disease in which the central nervous system degenerates and the individual loses control over voluntary movements, with the symptoms often appearing between ages 30 and 50

22

Klinefelter's syndrome

A chromosomal trisomy in which males have an extra X chromosome, resulting in an XXY condition; affected individuals typically have reduced fertility

23

macroevolution

Large-scale evolution, such as a speciation event, that occurs after hundreds or thousands of generations

24

melanic

Refers to an individual with high concentrations of melanin

25

microevolution

Small-scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one generation to the next

26

mutagens

Substances, such as toxins, chemicals, or radiation, that may induce genetic mutations

27

nonmelanic

Refers to an individual with low concentrations of melanin

28

nonsynonymous point mutation

A point mutation that creates a triplet coded to produce a different amino acid from that of the original triplet

29

point mutations

Replacements of a single nitrogen base with another base, which may or may not affect the amino acid for which the triplet codes

30

positive selection

Process in which advantageous genetic variants quickly increase in frequency in a population