Chapter 2 - Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Evolution Deck (30)
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1

Adaptive radiation

The diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environmental niches

2

Allele

One or more alternative forms of a gene

3

Blending Inheritance

An outdated, refuted theory that the phenotype of an offspring was a uniform blend of the parent's phenotypes

4

Catastrophism

The doctrine asserting that cataclysmic events, rather than evolutionary processes, are responsible for geologic changes throughout Earth's history

5

Chromosomes

The strand of DNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotes that contains hundreds or thousands of genese

6

Demography

The study of a population's features and vital statistics, including birthrate, death rate, population size, and population density

7

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A double-stranded molecule that provides the genetic code for an organism, consisting of phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and four types of nitrogen bases

8

Dominant

Refers to an allele that is expressed in an organism's phenotype and that simultaneously masks the effects of another allele, if another one is present

9

Evolutionary Biology

A specialty within the field of biology; the study of the process of change in organisms

10

Evolutionary synthesis

A unified theory of evolution that combines genetics with natural selection

11

Fossils

Physical remains of part or all of once-living organisms, mostly bones and teeth, that have become mineralized by the replacement of organic with inorganic materials

12

Gemmules

As proposed by Darwin, the units of inheritance, supposedly accumulated in the gametes so they could be passed on to offspring

13

Gene Flow

Admixture or the exchange of alleles between two populations

14

Genetic Drift

The random change in allele frequency from on generation to the next, with greater effect in small populations

15

Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism; the combination of alleles for a given gene

16

Genus

A group of related species

17

Geology

The study of Earth's physical history

18

Habitat

The specific area of the natural environment in which an organism lives

19

Lamarckism

First proposed by Lamarck, the theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics in which an organism can pass on features acquired during its lifetime

20

Mendelian Inheritance

The basic principles associated with the transmission of genetic material, forming the basis of genetics, including the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment

21

Mutation

A random change in a gene or chromosome, creating a new trait that may be advantageous, deleterious, or neutral in its effects on the organism

22

natural Selection

The process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to the environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, thereby increasing the frequency of those features in the population

23

Paleontology

The study of extinct lifeforms through analysis of fossils

24

Phenotype

The physical expression of the genotype; it may be influenced by the environment

25

Population Genetics

A specialty within the field of genetics; it focuses on the changes in gene frequencies and the effects of those changes on adaptation and evolution

26

Recessive

An allele that is expressed in an organism's phenotype if two copies are present but is masked if the dominant allele is present

27

Species

A group of related organisms that can be interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring

28

Systematics

The study and classification of living organisms to determine their evolutionary relationships with one another

29

Taxonomy

The classification of organisms into a system that reflects degrees of relatedness

30

Uniformitarianism

The theory that natural processes operating today are the same as the processes that occurred in the geologic past