Chapter 10 - Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood Flashcards Preview

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Social Learning Theory
teaching empathy and prosocial behaviour

One of the best ways to foster prosocial behaviour in children is for adults to model it

Reinforcement for prosocial behaviour can be effective if it involves praise rather than tangible rewards


Most effective at fostering prosocial behaviour when the model
(Social Learning Theory)

• is someone who has been warm and responsive with the child
• is someone the child respects, often due to competence and power
• displays actions and words that coincide


Why harsh punishment tends to be ineffective, and in fact damaging
(Social Learning Theory)

• Physical punishment models aggression
• Harshly treated children tend to feel angry, resentful, and personally threatened, which promotes personal distress over sympathy
• Frequently-punished children learn to avoid the punishing adult, who no longer has opportunities to teach them prosocial behaviour
• Physical punishment is correlated with abuse, and can transfer from one generation to the next


alternatives to harsh and/or punishment
(Social Learning Theory)

There are alternatives to harsh and/or punishment
• Time out - a form of mild punishment in which children are removed from the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately
• Withdrawal of privileges, such as television time
• Other technique is to ignore a child’s bad behaviour (when possible), while rewarding incompatible good behaviour


When punishment is used, it’s most effective if
(Social Learning Theory)

1. It’s used consistently
2. The parent-child relationship is a warm one
3. Explanation as to why a behaviour is wrong are provided


IF parents
THEN children
(Social Learning Theory)

It’s also useful if parents
• Build a mutually respectful bond with their children
• Let them know ahead of time how to act
• Praise mature behaviour

Then, we’re more likely to see children
• Express empathy after transgressions
• Behave responsibly
• Play fairly in games
• Consider others’ welfare


The Cognitive-Developmental Perspective
Contrary to Piaget

Although Piaget believed preschoolers judge acts more by the consequences than the intentions, this doesn’t seem to be the case
• As long as intentions are made very clear, they judge those with bad intentions more harshly than those with good intentions

Also contrary to Piaget’s model of moral development, preschoolers can distinguish among
• Moral imperatives – protects rights and welfare
• Social conventions – customs determined by social consensus
• Matters of personal choice – up to the individual

Tend to reason rigidly – making judgments based on salient features and consequences while neglecting other informatrion


Social experience also seems to have a great impact on developing empathy and pro-social behavior

• Disputes with siblings allow preschoolers to work out ideas about justice and fairness
• Watching adults handle rule violations and discuss moral issues provides information
• Having adults talk to them about fighting, honesty, and ownership, tell stories with moral implications, encourage prosocial behaviour, and gently stimulate the child to think about a situation can be helpful



2 purposes
1. Proactive aggression
2. Reactive aggression

Three types
1. Physical (direct or indirect)
2. Verbal (always direct)
3. Relational (direct or indirect)


Proactive aggression
Instrumental aggression

Carried out with a purpose in mind that extends beyond simply harming the victim.


Reactive aggression
Hostile aggression

is primarily intended to cause harm.


Gender typing

Gender typing - any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes


Gender-Stereotyped Beliefs and Behaviours

As early as 18 months, children begin linking “masculine” items with males
“feminine” items take a little longer, though this is culturally dependent

Before they can even label their own sex consistently

Preschoolers associate toys, articles of clothing, tools, household items, games, occupations, colours, and behaviours with either girls or boys

Age 2 can use gender labeling words correctly

Preschoolers’ gender stereotypes can be quite rigid
• They may believe that a boy “can’t” wear barrettes in his hair
• They often display beliefs that gender-typed behaviours, objects, etc. are what makes a person either male or female


Gender identity

an image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics

Gender identity is a good predictor of psychological adjustment
• “Masculine” and androgynous people tend to have higher self-esteem than “feminine” people



the gender identity held by individuals who score high on both traditionally masculine and traditionally feminine personality characteristics


How does gender identity emerge?

According to social learning theory, gender-typed behaviours precede self-perceptions

Cognitive-developmental theory claims self-perceptions come first


Parental conversations that lead to gender ideas

- Mothers to daughters: supportive statements, encourage participation in household tasks, direct play activities, provide help, refer to emotion

Refer to gender when unnecessary.


Gender constancy

Gender constancy - the understanding that sex is biologically based, remaining the same over time even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change
This develops gradually
• First we see gender labelling
• Then gender stability
• Then gender consistency

Cognitive immaturity not social inexperience is responceble for preschoolers difficulty with the constancy of sex.


Emergence of gender identity according to social learning theory

- Behavior comes before self-perception
- First acquire gender-typed responses through modeling and reinforcement
- Later organize theses behaviors into gender linked ideas about themselves.


Emergence of gender identity according to cognitive-development

Self-perception comes before gender linked behavior
Forms gender constancy (appearance-reality problem) (3 steps)


Gender schema theory

Gender schema theory - an information-processing approach to gender typing that explains how environmental pressures and children’s cognitions work together to shape gender-role development
• Children see gender-stereotyped references and behaviours in others
• They begin organizing their experiences in gender schemas, or categories based on gender
• As soon as they can label their own gender, their self-perceptions become gender-typed
• They begin paying selective attention to activities, toys, etc. that they believe to be pertinent for their gender
• Gender-schematic child (behavior result of ideas of gender)
• Gender-aschematic child (behavior rarely based on ideas about gender)
• Gender-salience filter (what fits within a gender identity)


The effects of gender schemas can be so strong that

• Children will choose to play with toys labelled as for their sex, even if the toys labelled as for the other sex are more attractive
• Children will often assume their own preferences (e.g., food preferences) apply to their entire gender
• Children often distort memories of seeing “gender-inconsistent” behaviour in others


Adults can reduce stereotyping by

• Limiting traditional gender roles in their own behaviour
• Providing nontraditional alternatives for children
• Ensuring that children spend time in mixed-gender play activities in the classroom, and in both adult-structured and unstructured activities
• Avoiding language that conveys gender stereotypes
• Keeping children from media presentations that convey gender stereotypes
• Parents and teachers can then help by pointing out exceptions
• Arranging for children to see adults in nontraditional careers, for instance


Child-rearing styles

Child-rearing styles - combinations of parenting behaviours that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate

The three major features that are consistently considered important are
• Acceptance and involvement
• Control
• Autonomy granting


What Makes Authoritative Child Rearing Effective?

Recall that this is correlational
• Maybe the children’s good behaviour is the root of the positive child-rearing style, rather than vice versa
• But longitudinal research suggests that it is largely the parents’ behaviour influencing child outcomes
• Consider what’s going on in authoritative child rearing


Consider what’s going on in authoritative child rearing

• Parents are modelling caring concern, and usually confident, self-controlled behaviour
• Rules are established in a way that appears fair and reasonable, not arbitrary
• Parents match demands and autonomy granting to children’s abilities, and foster high self-esteem by showing they believe their children to be competent
• Acceptance, involvement, and rational control are known to be a powerful source of resilience


Maltreatment includes

Physical abuse (20%)
Sexual abuse (10%)
Neglect (60%)
Emotional abuse (10%)

Pernts comit 80% of abuse
Mothers engage in more neglect
Fathers engage in more sexual abuse
Physical and emotional abuse is equaly common among mothers and fathers
Infants and preschoolers are at higher risk for neglect
School age are high risk for the other three


Consequences of maltreatment

Impair the development of emotional self-regulation, empathy, sympathy, self-concept, social skills, and academic motivation.

Overtime they show serious adjustment problems including depression, aggressive behavior, peer difficulties, substance abuse, delinquency and violent crime. Central nervous system damage blunts children’s normal physiological response to stress.

Hostile cycles


Preventing child maltreatment

Aim prevention and families, communities, and society as a whole.

- Teaching parents
- Teaching high schoolers
- Improving economic conditions
- Family social services
- Easing parental stress through social supports
- A trusted relationship with other adults reduce social isolation
- Home visitation
- Cognitive training to revaluate negative appraisals of their children


Otitis media

- Ear infection
- Can cause delayed language development in children 6m to 3y
- Risk Factors: Crowded living conditions, child care, cigarette smoke, other pollutants
- Prevented: frequent screening, control in child care settings, verbaly stimulating adult/child interactions, vaccines