Chapter 10: Nutrients Involved in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10: Nutrients Involved in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Deck (23)
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1

Why would men tend to have more body water than women?

men generally have a higher ratio of lean muscle to fat than women. Lean tissue holds water, whereas fat is stored without water.

2

What is an electrolyte?

a charged ion that conducts electrical current in solution

3

Define osmosis

the movement of water across a cell membrane from an area of high h2o concentration to low h2O concentration

4

How is water used to regulate temperature?

water has a high heat capacity and prevents drastic temperature change. Blood carries heat from the core to the capillaries near the surface of the skin. Heat is released from the skin to the environment. H2O in sweat evaporates from the skin causing heat to be lost, cooling the skin and the blood at the skins surface.
Cooled blood then returns to the body core.

5

What part of the brain helps maintain fluid balance? how?

hypothalamus helps maintain the fluid balance by triggering sensations of thirst by responding to decreasing blood volume and increased solute concentration.

6

What does an antideuretic hormone do?

reduces the amount of water in the body by mitigating excretion.

7

decreased blood volume and increased salt concentration stimulates the _____ glad, which releases _____ hormone, which reaches the kidney and ____water absorption

stimulates the pituitary gland, which releases antideuretic hormone, which reaches the kidneys and increases water reabsorption, making it so less water is peed out.

8

Why does dehydration promote to less oxygen being delivered to tissues?

because blood volume lowers.

9

Adequate intake of fluid for adults?

men- 3.7L/day
women- 2.7L/day

10

What is the main function of electrolytes?

regulates nerve conduction and muscle contration

11

What is the resting charge of the inside of the cell (intercellular fluid)

negative- not a lot of sodium or potassium, lots of negative phosphorus

12

When a stimulus occurs, ____ ions rush into the cell via a protein channel, causing the inside of the cell to lose negativity. This process is called ____

sodium ions rush into the cell, triggering a nerve implus. This is called depolarization.

13

What is repolarization?

when positive sodium and potassium ions get pumped back out of the cell, re forming the gradient and making the intercellular space negative again.

14

What is hyponatremia?

low sodium

15

Humans are consuming way ____ sodium than the upper limit, whihc is 2300mg/day

way more

16

What is hyperkalemia? hypokalemia?

hyperkalemia: increased blood potassium levels
hypokalemia: decreased blood postassium levels.

17

Why is phosphorus so important?

important building blocks of ATP, bones and teeth. Important for cell membranes bc they help form the phospholipid bilayer (and lipoproteins)

18

alcohol is a ____ which is why people get hangovers because of dehydration

alcohol is a diuretic, promoting water loss via peeing

19

What're the two alcohol processing systems

1) alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme: active when there is a small amount of alcohol. Breaks it down into acetyl coa and into fatty acids

2) microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system: breaks down large amounts of etOH to make reactive oxygen species (free radicals), and is then converted into fatty acids

20

T/F alcohol can be used for cell respiration

false, alcohol is automatically converted into fatty acids. and goes straight into fat storage.

21

Is alcohol a depressant or stimulant?

depressant. Decreases the rate signals are received by the brain. affects judgement and reasoning,vision, voluntary muscle control etc.

22

What is the direct cause of the pain felt in the hangover?

the direct headache felt during a hangover is because the brain is swelling back to its normal size after being shrunk and dehydrated. You are feeling nerve pain. there is also a formation of formaldehyde, a toxin.

23

T/F, when combined with phytochemicals, alcohol shows decreased signs of mortality

true