Flashcards in Chapter 15: Nutrition and Physical Activity Deck (32)
What is the overload principle?
the idea that the body adpats to stressed placed on it. In order to keep building muscle and to get more fit, one must change workouts up and push themselves beyond what the body is comfortable doing
What type of physical activity would help lower resting heart rate?
What is VO2 max? What kind of activity would help increase VO2 max?
VO2 max is the muscles ability to make ATP. Aerobic activity helps increase VO2 max.
What kind of training would help increase muscle and bone strength, as well as muscle endurance?
Creatine phosphate is used as fuel for ____term energy
short/instant term energy
what kind of fuels are used for short term energy? Does this process need oxygen?
Short term energy is anaerobic and does not need oxygen. Creatine Phosphate provides 10-15 s of instant energy by breaking CP into C + Pi, which is then used to phosphorylate adp and create ATP.
Glucose can undergo rapid glycolysis and provide 30-2 min of energy (ATP.) The by product of anaerobic respiration of glucose is lactic acid.
What kind of fuel is used during aerobic activity? When will aerobic activity take place?
aerobic activity takes place when you are doing long term exercises that provide enough oxygen in order for both fatty acids and glucose to undergo cell respiration and provide ATP.
At rest, you are burning stores of ____ rather than glucose. Why?
fatty acids. When you are resting, there is enough oxygen in your body to oxidize the lipids
At Low intensity working out, you are burning fuel stores of ____ and ___
fatty acids and glucose
at high intensity working out, you are burning ____-
glucose in the form of anaerobic respiration. There is a shortage of oxygen (breathing fast and hard) and it is more difficult to oxidize fat.
What is considered the "fat burning zone"
the state of exercising at a lower intensity because more O2 is present to burn fatty acids.
What is considered the cardio zone?
higher intensity exercise that causes more anaerobic respiration to take place, causing the burning of glucose to be the main % of calories lost.
In terms of cardiovascular health, how does cardio benefit?
1) heart gets larger and stronger
2) # of blood vessels to muscle increase
3) total blood volume and #RBC's increase. therefore. more oxygen is being given to cells.
On a cellular level, how does cardio benefit?
1) increases the amount of glycogen muscles can store
2) increase the number and size of mitochondria
3) increase the cells capacity to burn FA to produce ATP
What organ has depleted glycogen stores if a person is hypoglycemic?
depleted liver glycogen stores
What is the glycemic index? what food has the max GI? What factors play a role in the foods GI?
glycemic index is the scale of carbohydrate rich foods and how they increase blood-glucose concentrations. dependent on fiber and protein and fat. max GI is white bread
T/F, you should probably drink gatorade if you are going to lightly jog on the treadmill
false, you only really need gatorade if you are undergoing strenuous exercise for over 45 minutes.
When is glycogen synthesis occurring the most? how does this affect when you eat?
1 hour after the workout, it is optimal to eat and top up your glycogen and blood-glucose levels soon after working out.
Why does carb loading help improve performance
eating more thna normal amount of carbs before a competition helps build your glycogen stores so you don't burn out.
What is the disadvantage of carb loading?
may feel bogged down because CHO metabolism involved water storage too.
T/F; if you are an athlete,you should eat a higher proportion of fat in your diet since they are the highest in energy macronutrient
false. there is no shown improvement in eating more fat if you are an athlete. Athletes should maintain the same 20-35% proportion like anyone else. they may eat more fat than an avergae person because their caloric intake is overall higher.
Why is adequate protein intake so important?
important to optimize protein metabolism and allow the body to undergo protein/AA synthesis while sparing lean muscle.
When you are strength training, how does your protein intake change rather if you were endurance training?
endurance: 1.2-1.4g/kg protein
strength: 1.2-1.7g/kg protein.
what is the max usable amount of protein
Why might athletes produce more free radicals? How do athletes fight against it?
there is more metabolism going on, increased movement and respiration, causing higher production of free radicals. They need to take more antioxidants like vitamin C and E.
What is foot strike hemolysis? what micronutrient deficiency might this cause?
breaking of red blood cells because of physical impact. Iron can be lost.
What kind of athletes may be at increased risk of anemia?
female atheletes, vegetarian athletes, athletes needing to lose weight
Why are athletes more vulnerable to eating disorders?
1) they have higher levels of self discipline
2) they have high pressure to achieve
What is the female athlete triad?
eating disorders, menorrhea, osteoporosis. low caloric intake from eating disorders causes starvation conditions, causing menorrhea. menorrhea causes decreased levels of estrogen and estrogen is needed for Ca2+ absorption, resulting in osteoporosis.