Flashcards in Chapter 14: Energy Balance and Weight Management Deck (51)
What is a Healthy body weight?
a body weight that minimizes health risks and promotes overall health.
What is the Hay's Method?
the idea that there is healthiness at every weight
Why is BMI unreliable?
1) does not provide full picture, it does not tell body fat ratio.
2) cannot provide overall health risk and status
3) not appropriate for many groups of people such as pregnant women and athletes
Instead of BMI, what is a better comparison technique?
Body composition determination. Determines fat to muscle ratio.
How is underwater weighing a method for body measuring comparison?
fat is lighter in water, increased fat makes the individual lighter in water.
Why do females need more fat?
12% is essential for normal reproductive function.
Subcutaneous fat vs visceral fat
subcutaneous fat: fat around the hips and legs. more common in females
Visceral fat: around abdominal organs, more common in men
Which type of fat is more metabolically active?
Which type of fat is more common in women?
subcutaneous fat, around the hips and legs
Define set point theory
body remains in a range that is GENETICALLY DETERMINED. internal mechanisms defend against weight change
A person with a thrift metabolism has a ___ metabolism. Why
A slow metabolism. Ability to gain weight more easily because their body uses less calories for bodily function.
What do obesity genes do?
produce proteins that affect how much food you eat, how much energy you spend, and how your fat is stored.
When energy intake > energy expenditure, people become ___
Adipose cells first increase in ___ then in ____.
First increase in size, and then number
How do social values impact the formation of adipose cells?
social eating, drinking. not enough exercise
What is a positive energy balance? what happens when a person is in a positive energy balance?
when energy input>energy out. results in weight gain
when is it good for a person to be in a positive energy balance?
when a person is pregnant, undergoing growth spurts
What is a negative energy balance?what happens when a person is in a negative energy balance?
when energy in < energy out
In terms of signals, what is the difference between hunger and appetite?
Hunger; the drive to consume food is triggered by INTERNAL PHYSIOLOGICAL signals, like decreased blood glucose.
Appetite: the drive to consume food is triggered by EXTERNAL cues light sight and smell, and is independent of hunger.
What regulates short term food intake?
hunger; innate drive to consume food,
satiety; feeling of fullness after a meal
satiation; feeling of fullness and satisfaction, eliminates the desire to continue eating.
satiety vs satiation
satiety: physical feeling of being full
satiation: the satisfaction of a meal, eliminates the desire to continue eating.
What regulates the long term regulation of food intake?
signal from adipose tissue- adjusts both food intake and energy expenditure
What're some factors that may cause satiety
1) stomach stretching/being too full
2) intestinal distention- nutrients in intestine
3) high blood glucose and nutrients.
May feel like you do not want to eat again
What is ghrelin?
hormone that stimulates the desire to eat at usual meal times
What is peptide YY?
hormone released by GI tract after a meal in proportion to the number of calories consumed to reduce appetite
What is leptin?
hormone secreted from adipocytes in proportion to their size to regulate energy intake and expenditure.
What does a lack of leptin signal?
signals the individual to eat more and to expend less energy
total energy expenditure. energy used by the body each day.
What're the components of TEE?
basal energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, physical activity.