Flashcards in Chapter 11: Nutrients involved in Antioxidant Function Deck (25)
What're the three main vitamins used as an antioxidant
vit C, A, E
How do antioxidants fight free radicals?
by stabilizing free radicals by giving or withdrawing their excess charge
Is vitamin C water or fat soluble?
T/F Vitamin C gets destroyed by oxygen, light, heat, or metal contact?
Why is a vitamin C supplement good for someone with anemia?
because it facilitates iron absorption
Name the general mechanism for vitamin C reformation?
vitamin C gets oxidized by a free radical that takes its electrons, and gets converted into dehydroascorbic acids. It then gets regenerated to ascorbic acid/normal vit C when electrons and protons are provided by other antioxidants.
Why is vitamin C needed to prevent scurvy? A tissue degrading condition
vitamin C is needed in collagen production. No vit C = weaker collagen fibers because a certain component cannot be made
The RDA for vitamin C is___
90mg/day for men, 75mg/day for women.
What is a sign of vitamin C toxicity?
difficult to be toxic because it is a water soluble compound and can be peed out, but it may facilitate kidney stones and cause tooth erosion
What're the two main forms of vitamin A found in the diet?
1) provitamines: vitamin A precursors such as carotenoids.
2) retinoids: retinol, retinoic acid.
Retinol vs retinoic acid?
retinol is involved with vision, sexual reproductwhichion, bone health and immune function.
Retinoic acid is involved in cell differentiation, bone health and immune and gene expression.
Purpose of retinol binding protein?
helps circulate vitamin A through the blood
What is rhodopsin?
a complex formed by retinal and the opsin protein.
How does rhodopsin aid in vision? if there is a vitamin A deficiency, how may this affect a person's eye sight?
rhodopsin undergoes conformational change from trans to cis, triggering a nerve impulse, and the retinal and opsin protein breaks apart. If there is a vitamin A deficiency, the broken rhodopsin cannot be regenerated, and until it is reformed by the presence of retinal, light cannot be received.
which type of vitamin A is needed for cell differentiation and epigenetcis?
how does a deficiency in retinoic acid affect the eyes in terms of epithelial tissue differentiation?
because retinoic acid affects cell differentiation, a deficiency can cause the epithelial cells in the eyes to produce keratin instead of mucus. This causes cornea to dry up and cause blindness.
Two types of eye conditions caused by vitamin A deficiency
1) xerophthalmia: progressive eye disorder starting with night blindness
2) keratomalacia: cloudiness and softening of the cornea, cornea ruptures and causes permanent blindness.
Why does lack of vitamin A cause fetal development abnormalities?
because vitamin A plays a roll in cell differentiation.
why does lack of vitamin A cause increased infection risk?
because vitamin A effects epithelial cell differentiation, and epithelial cells are an important immune defense component
what is hypercarotenemia
causes hyperpigmentation from eating too many foods with provitamins (vit A precursors) like carrots, because they contain a lot of cartenoids
If vitamin E fat soluble or water soluble
What does vitamin E do?
protect against oxidative damage, like all antioxadents, also protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation in the cell membranes
how can one increase the amount of vitamin E in their diet?
eating a lot of polyunsaturated fat, such as in avocados or nuts or canola oil
what cell types are more susceptible to degradation if there is not enough vitamin E?
nerve cells- sheath is made of fat with vitamin E. not enough vitamin E can cause degradation and thus weakness and lack of coordination
RBCs- can cause cells to rupture