Flashcards in Chapter 9: Vitamins, Minerals and Nutritional Supplements Deck (34)
T/F Vitamins provide energy
False. Vitamins do not provide energy. Vitamins help release energy from macronutrients.
Vitamins are most absorbed in the _____
Name the water soluble vitamins
The- Thiamine B1
Romans- Riboflavin B2
Never- Niacin B3
Painted- Pantholenic Acid
Pyramids- Pyridoxine B6
Name the Fat soluble vitamins
Water soluble vitamins can move directly though the small intestines via _____ diffusion
Fat soluble vitamins must form a ____ and be surrounded by ___ in order to move through the small intestines via facilitated diffusion
must form a micell surrounded by amphipathic bile acids
Why is there a higher chance that fat soluble viatmins reaching toxic levels than water soluble vitamins?
fat soluble vitamins can be stored in adipose tissue and can accumulate. Water soluble vitamins cannot usually be stored and thus are excreted out more readily.
A mineral that is needed less than ____ is considered a minor mineral
less than 100 mg/ day
a mineral that is needed more than -__ is considered a major mineral
What is a coenzyme?
a molecule that combines with an enzyme to activate it.
Why is canned vegetables worse to eat then fresh or frozen veggies?
often have high sodium and salt content because they are preserves. They are usually cooked ,decreasing nutritional content
adding nutrients back to food that was originally there but were lost during processing
adding nutrients to food that were not necessarily present before hand. ex/ milk is fortified with vitamind D
a factor that may affect nutrient absorption. The amound of a nutrient absorbed from the diet and available for use in the body.
What factors can affect a persons bioavailability?
lifestage of a person
in pregnany- more calcium is needed and thus absrobed
composition of the diet:
- phytates: found in high fiber grains that may cause a decrease in absorption
- oxalates: found in leafy greens that may decrease calcium absorption despite these foods often having a lot of calcium
-tannins; in tea and wine. may prevent iron absorption and decrease bioavailability
Why do phytates affect bioavailabiltiy?
found in high fiber grains that may cause a decrease in absorption by binding to water in the small intesetine
why do oxalates affect bioavailability?
found in leafy greens that decrease calcium absorption
why do tannins affect bioavailability?
found in tea and wines that prevent iron absorption, decreasing iron bioavailability in the body.
What is a phytochemical?
chemicals derived from plants with antioxidant activities, not considered nutrients.
What are flavonoids?
a type of phytochemical found in berries, chocolate, black tea etc. that shows decreased tumor growth and can kill cancer cell, decreased inflammation
what are phytoestrogens
found in soy beans and soy products hat show decreased tumor growth
What are carotenoids
found in carrots and had antioxidant properties
What are organosulfer compounds
a phytochemical found in onions and garlic, shows antioxidant properties
Why are whole foods better?
one food can give many different vitamins and minerals
What're some groups of people that would benefit from supplements?
adults over 50, dark skinned individuals need viatmin D, people on restricted diets, people on medications
For calcium, as dosage increases, the absorption ____
decreases; therefore you should take it more often but in smaller amounts
What're the two forms of calcium supplements and what conditions should they be taken under?
1) calcium carbonate, must be taken with meals
2) calcium citrate, can be taken any time
What is non-heme?
iron in ferric form. It is non oxidized Fe3+. It needs to be converted to Fe2+ before being absorbed.
What is non heme needed to be taken with
vitamin C so it can oxidize the iron to Fe2+