Chapter 9: Vitamins, Minerals and Nutritional Supplements Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Vitamins, Minerals and Nutritional Supplements Deck (34)
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1

T/F Vitamins provide energy

False. Vitamins do not provide energy. Vitamins help release energy from macronutrients.

2

Vitamins are most absorbed in the _____

small intestine

3

Name the water soluble vitamins

The- Thiamine B1
Romans- Riboflavin B2
Never- Niacin B3
Painted- Pantholenic Acid
Pyramids- Pyridoxine B6
Before- Biotin
Finding- Folate
Cleopatra- Cobalamin
Vitamin C

4

Name the Fat soluble vitamins

ADEK

5

Water soluble vitamins can move directly though the small intestines via _____ diffusion

facilitated diffusion

6

Fat soluble vitamins must form a ____ and be surrounded by ___ in order to move through the small intestines via facilitated diffusion

must form a micell surrounded by amphipathic bile acids

7

Why is there a higher chance that fat soluble viatmins reaching toxic levels than water soluble vitamins?

fat soluble vitamins can be stored in adipose tissue and can accumulate. Water soluble vitamins cannot usually be stored and thus are excreted out more readily.

8

A mineral that is needed less than ____ is considered a minor mineral

less than 100 mg/ day

9

a mineral that is needed more than -__ is considered a major mineral

over 100mg/day

10

What is a coenzyme?

a molecule that combines with an enzyme to activate it.

11

Why is canned vegetables worse to eat then fresh or frozen veggies?

often have high sodium and salt content because they are preserves. They are usually cooked ,decreasing nutritional content

12

Define enrichment

adding nutrients back to food that was originally there but were lost during processing

13

define fortification:

adding nutrients to food that were not necessarily present before hand. ex/ milk is fortified with vitamind D

14

Define bioavailability

a factor that may affect nutrient absorption. The amound of a nutrient absorbed from the diet and available for use in the body.

15

What factors can affect a persons bioavailability?

lifestage of a person
in pregnany- more calcium is needed and thus absrobed
health status
composition of the diet:
- phytates: found in high fiber grains that may cause a decrease in absorption
- oxalates: found in leafy greens that may decrease calcium absorption despite these foods often having a lot of calcium
-tannins; in tea and wine. may prevent iron absorption and decrease bioavailability

16

Why do phytates affect bioavailabiltiy?

found in high fiber grains that may cause a decrease in absorption by binding to water in the small intesetine

17

why do oxalates affect bioavailability?

found in leafy greens that decrease calcium absorption

18

why do tannins affect bioavailability?

found in tea and wines that prevent iron absorption, decreasing iron bioavailability in the body.

19

What is a phytochemical?

chemicals derived from plants with antioxidant activities, not considered nutrients.

20

What are flavonoids?

a type of phytochemical found in berries, chocolate, black tea etc. that shows decreased tumor growth and can kill cancer cell, decreased inflammation

21

what are phytoestrogens

found in soy beans and soy products hat show decreased tumor growth

22

What are carotenoids

found in carrots and had antioxidant properties

23

What are organosulfer compounds

a phytochemical found in onions and garlic, shows antioxidant properties

24

Why are whole foods better?

one food can give many different vitamins and minerals

25

What're some groups of people that would benefit from supplements?

adults over 50, dark skinned individuals need viatmin D, people on restricted diets, people on medications

26

For calcium, as dosage increases, the absorption ____

decreases; therefore you should take it more often but in smaller amounts

27

What're the two forms of calcium supplements and what conditions should they be taken under?

1) calcium carbonate, must be taken with meals
2) calcium citrate, can be taken any time

28

What is non-heme?

iron in ferric form. It is non oxidized Fe3+. It needs to be converted to Fe2+ before being absorbed.

29

What is non heme needed to be taken with

vitamin C so it can oxidize the iron to Fe2+

30

What is ferrous iron?

2+ iron that is more readily absorbed. Does not require a converstion.