Chapter 10 Respiratory system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Respiratory system Deck (47):
1

ventilation

first step of respiration
-process of getting air into the actual lungs

2

respiration

getting O2 from lungs into the blood

3

perfusion

how much blood flow is going through an organ
-when we perfuse more blood we will get a higher concentration of gas exchange

4

shunt

prevents an organ from getting as much blood
-under control of the autonomic nervous system
-the sympathetic nervous system probably wont push blood to kidneys

5

quiet exhalation

thoracic cavity naturally contracts and air naturally goes out

6

internal respiration

production of atp within the cell
-getting O2 from blood to cell

7

external respiration

getting O2 into the blood

8

gas exchange between the outside environment and the body cells requires 4 main steps

pulmonary ventilation
external respiration
transport in blood
internal respiration

9

gas exchange between the internal and external environment occurs at the r

respiratory membrane

10

rate and efficiency of gas exchange is impacted by what

-concentration gradients across resp membrane
-air quality and air comp (level of humidity)
-atmospheric pressure
-RBC # and quality
-edema
-autonomic tone

11

blood ph in a normal human is 7.4 this is maintained by ______ and _____ systems and monitored constantly by the _______.

respiratory and renal systems
monitored by the hypothalamus
also maintained by a buffering system

12

what processes in the body produce H+

lactic acid production
-cellular respiration
-metabolism

13

How is H+ removed by the respiratory system?

respiratory and renal system

14

what happens to blood pH if CO2 cannot be efficiently removed? acidocis or alkalosis?

acidosis

15

exposed mucous membranes in the upper respiratory tract increase evaporative heat loss that is beneficial in _______ and detrimental in _____ air.

beneficial in warm moist air
detrimental in cold dry air

16

what is the majority of gas we breathe?

nitrogen

17

what does higher water vapor do to gas exchange

impedes gas exchange and diffusion at the respiratory membrane

18

during times of high sympathetic tone what happens to capillaries

we will open more capillaries that surround the alveoli and then we allow more blood to perfuse through the lung tissues so we can get more O2 and diffuse more CO2

19

during times of high parasympathetic tone

we don't need to oxygenate the blood or blow off as much CO2 so you shunt the blood away from the lungs and toward other areas of the body

20

what happens to the blood with too much CO2

becomes acidic

21

what happens to the blood with too little CO2

becomes alkalitic
-alkalosis

22

what would cause an alveoli to collapse?

trauma
or spontaneously collapsing
higer outside so a knife creates a hole or air to rush to the inside and pushes on the spongy tissue and it collapses so all the air in the lung is pushed out

23

what happens if our blood becomes to acidic?

proteins become denatured

24

what at the two chemoreceptors that detect pH

central chemoreceptor- in the brain tissue itself
-peripheral chemoreceptor- in the large arteies
-they both detect the H+ ion concentration

25

if we blow off CO2 what happens to the amount of hydrogen in our blood?

hydrogen concentration goes down
-so when hydrogen goes down the pH level goes up

26

if you have too many H+ ions in the blood what are you producing

carbon dioxide

27

functions of the upper respiratory tract

ventilation, olfaction, thermoregulation, phonation

28

structures of the upper respiratory tract are all a part of the ______ zone and are not involved in gas exchange

conducting zone

29

respiratory epithelial lining the sinuses contain goblet cells which secrete _______. and also have ciliated cells which _______.

goblet cells secrete mucous
ciliated cells beat

30

if mucus accumulates in the sinuses it causes what

infection because of the warm moist environment

31

accumulation of mucus is caused by:

the closing of the ostia
-reduction of cilia beating due to smoking
-dehydration
-cystic fibrosis

32

cystic fibrosis

have a mutation that impacts their chloride channels
-really thick mucous so the cilia cannot move

33

the lower respiratory tract is involved in both _____ and _____

conduction and respiration

34

factors influencing gas diffusion

partial pressures of gas
number of molecules
temperature
volume of container

35

the goal of the respiratory system is to maintain ____ gas pressue in the alveolus and _____ gas pressure in the blood.

high gas pressure in alveolus and low gas pressure in blood

36

equilibrium is prevented due to

ventilation of lungs
-binding of proteins in the blood : hemoglobin
-perfusion and flow in capillaries

37

what would happen if blood flow stopped

we would reach equilibrium

38

at the same pressure you have less O2 in a Hb molecule for some reason the Hb cant hold onto its O3 what does this cause

an increase in core body temp

39

Hb holds onto O2 really tight and doesn't want to let go this causes what

a decrease in core body temp eventually hypothermia

40

alveoli is located in the _____ zone

respiratory zone

41

alveolar type 1 cells

main sites for gas exchange

42

alveolar type 2 cells

produce surfactant and can function as stem cells

43

clara cells

produce proteins to protect from toxins and regenerate type 2 cells

44

what would cause the resp membrane to thicken?

edema
-air pollution
smoking

45

there is only ____ type two cell per alveolus

one type two cell per alveolus

46

in enphysema what happens to surface area

surface area of alveoli are decreased thus decreasing gas exchange (CO2 has troubles getting out and O2 has troubles getting in)

47

what happens in chronic bronchitis

can lead to the accumulation of mucus and you can get scarring after chronic infections that will narrow the openings making respiration harder