chapter 11 Digestive system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 11 Digestive system Deck (59):
1

endocrine

hormones in blood

2

paracrine

hormones in ECF

3

exocrine

digestive enzyme outside through a duct and into lumen

4

zymogen

inactive enzyme

5

if food moves too fast what happens

the body is unable to efficiently extract nutrients from it before it is excreted

6

if food moves too slowly what happens?

it can cause extreme discomfort and lead to serious disorders

7

small intestine

site of most absorption (jejunum and ileum)

8

significance of albumin

holds onto water

9

urea cycle

production of ammonia from urea

10

what are some common waste products from cell metabolism?

CO2 and H2O from atp production

11

how are waste products removed and do they impact the blood?

CO2 in blood can be buffered and causes no changes in pH
-if it overwhelms the buffering system it will cause pH In the blood to accumulate making it acidic

12

catabolism

breaking down of stuff as it enters the cell
-realeases heat
-energy release
-liberation of building blocks

13

anabolism

building up products

14

basic component of carbs

saccharide

15

basic component of protein

amino acid

16

do fats have a defined monomer?

no

17

carbohydrates are made from what three elements?

carbon hydrogen oxygen

18

glycosidic bond

covalent bond formed from a dehydration reaction

19

the production of glycogen is controlled by a hormones released by the ______, primarily insulin, which tell hepatocytes of the liver to take up the extra glucose in circulation after a meal

pancrease

20

the 10 amino acids that we can produce on owr own generally do not need to be consumed in the diet are called

non-essential amino acids

21

amino acids we cannot produce on our own is called

essential amino acids

22

humans can only use _____ amino acids; d amino acids are not useful for us and should not be consumed in the diet

L amino acids

23

the ____ group dictates the amino acids chemical properties , functions, and interaction with other amino acids in a protein

R group

24

sphincters

temporarily suspend movement in the GI tract to increase chemical digestion

25

in the mouth and the esophagus the epithelial cells are ____ to provide a protective function

stratified and partially keratinized

26

in the stomach the epithelial cells of the mucosa are _____ and are specialized for the production and secretion of HCL, mucus, and digestive enzymes

simple epithelia

27

small intestines are lined with enterocytes and goblet cells why

because they have a highly absorptive nature

28

what do villi and microvilli in the small intestine do?

increase surface area and increase nutrient absorption

29

large intestine epithelia

simple and stratified

30

the mucosa of the anal canal serves one purpose which is protection so ________ cells line it.

stratified squamous

31

activites within the layers of the GI tract are influenced or modulated by the ____ nervous system, but can function completely on their own without any input from the CNS due to the enteric nervous system

autonomic nervous system

32

smooth muscles cells in GI

open or close the lumen size

33

longitudinal muscle cells of the GI

propulsion cells (pushes food through)

34

parasympathetic neurons

increase motility
increase digestive glands
release ACH
stimulates smooth muslces
ITS STIMULATORY!

35

sympathetic neurons

releases norepinephrine
decreases blood flow
decreases motility
decreases secretion of digestive enzymes
decrease in expression of glands
ITS INHIBITORY!

36

function of lamina propia

allows fro stretching, allow immune cells to move around

37

sensory neurons

detect changes in osmolarity of luminal contents
ex: chemoreceptors detect pH and physical changes

38

chemoreceptors detect

pH

39

mechanoreceptors detect

stretch

40

what happens to the GI tract under severe stress?

decreases motility

41

myenteric plexus is located in the ______.

located in the muscularis mucosa
mostly motor and inter neurons

42

the mouth is lined by a musous membrane and consists of stratified squamous epithelium. Why

provides protection from all the grinding and abrasions the mucosa suffers from food substances

43

the production of saliva via major and minor salivary glands is under ____ and _____ control.

neuronal and endocrine

44

tight occlusion of teeth

teeth of the upper arcade generally fit fairly precisely with those in the lower arcade

45

periodontal ligament

attaches tooth to underlying bone

46

deglutition occurs in three distinct phases what are they

oral stage
pharyngeal stage
esophageal stage

47

oral

only voluntary stage
involves mastication and bolus formation

48

pharyngeal phase

involuntary: bolus passes through pharynx to opening of esophagus, requires simultaneous contraction and relaxation of different muscles

49

esophageal stage

involuntary process
initiates peristalsis in the esophagus

50

saliva is _% water and _% electrolytes, enzymes, immunoglobins, urea and ammonia

99% water
1% electrolytes

51

what nerve is the tongue controlled by?
what happens if there is damage to this nerve?

cranial nerve 12 hypoglossal
- damage to this nerve will cause paralysis and atrophyof the tongue on one side

52

cephalic phase

starts process of salivation by seeing food or smelling food

53

gastric phase

gets stomach ready for food
-increases production of mucus
-hydrochloric acid lowers stomach pH to 1.5 to 2 and need the mucus to buffer
-chime - mixture of digestion watery mass of food

54

intestinal phase

when chime enters the duodenum

55

function of the 3 large salivary glands

facilitate taste , defends oral mucosa and tongue from infection

56

exocrine

secrete directly onto a surface or into a duct

57

endocrine

do not dump their products onto a surface or into a duct
instead secrete their product into the blood

58

paracrine

hormone in ECF
secretions meant to act locally

59

what impact would the overuse of antacids have on protein digetions/ absorption

it would decrease the HCL needed to activate pepsinogen to pepsin