Flashcards in chapter 11 Digestive system Deck (59):
hormones in blood
hormones in ECF
digestive enzyme outside through a duct and into lumen
if food moves too fast what happens
the body is unable to efficiently extract nutrients from it before it is excreted
if food moves too slowly what happens?
it can cause extreme discomfort and lead to serious disorders
site of most absorption (jejunum and ileum)
significance of albumin
holds onto water
production of ammonia from urea
what are some common waste products from cell metabolism?
CO2 and H2O from atp production
how are waste products removed and do they impact the blood?
CO2 in blood can be buffered and causes no changes in pH
-if it overwhelms the buffering system it will cause pH In the blood to accumulate making it acidic
breaking down of stuff as it enters the cell
-liberation of building blocks
building up products
basic component of carbs
basic component of protein
do fats have a defined monomer?
carbohydrates are made from what three elements?
carbon hydrogen oxygen
covalent bond formed from a dehydration reaction
the production of glycogen is controlled by a hormones released by the ______, primarily insulin, which tell hepatocytes of the liver to take up the extra glucose in circulation after a meal
the 10 amino acids that we can produce on owr own generally do not need to be consumed in the diet are called
non-essential amino acids
amino acids we cannot produce on our own is called
essential amino acids
humans can only use _____ amino acids; d amino acids are not useful for us and should not be consumed in the diet
L amino acids
the ____ group dictates the amino acids chemical properties , functions, and interaction with other amino acids in a protein
temporarily suspend movement in the GI tract to increase chemical digestion
in the mouth and the esophagus the epithelial cells are ____ to provide a protective function
stratified and partially keratinized
in the stomach the epithelial cells of the mucosa are _____ and are specialized for the production and secretion of HCL, mucus, and digestive enzymes
small intestines are lined with enterocytes and goblet cells why
because they have a highly absorptive nature
what do villi and microvilli in the small intestine do?
increase surface area and increase nutrient absorption
large intestine epithelia
simple and stratified
the mucosa of the anal canal serves one purpose which is protection so ________ cells line it.
activites within the layers of the GI tract are influenced or modulated by the ____ nervous system, but can function completely on their own without any input from the CNS due to the enteric nervous system
autonomic nervous system
smooth muscles cells in GI
open or close the lumen size
longitudinal muscle cells of the GI
propulsion cells (pushes food through)
increase digestive glands
stimulates smooth muslces
decreases blood flow
decreases secretion of digestive enzymes
decrease in expression of glands
function of lamina propia
allows fro stretching, allow immune cells to move around
detect changes in osmolarity of luminal contents
ex: chemoreceptors detect pH and physical changes
what happens to the GI tract under severe stress?
myenteric plexus is located in the ______.
located in the muscularis mucosa
mostly motor and inter neurons
the mouth is lined by a musous membrane and consists of stratified squamous epithelium. Why
provides protection from all the grinding and abrasions the mucosa suffers from food substances
the production of saliva via major and minor salivary glands is under ____ and _____ control.
neuronal and endocrine
tight occlusion of teeth
teeth of the upper arcade generally fit fairly precisely with those in the lower arcade
attaches tooth to underlying bone
deglutition occurs in three distinct phases what are they
only voluntary stage
involves mastication and bolus formation
involuntary: bolus passes through pharynx to opening of esophagus, requires simultaneous contraction and relaxation of different muscles
initiates peristalsis in the esophagus
saliva is _% water and _% electrolytes, enzymes, immunoglobins, urea and ammonia
what nerve is the tongue controlled by?
what happens if there is damage to this nerve?
cranial nerve 12 hypoglossal
- damage to this nerve will cause paralysis and atrophyof the tongue on one side
starts process of salivation by seeing food or smelling food
gets stomach ready for food
-increases production of mucus
-hydrochloric acid lowers stomach pH to 1.5 to 2 and need the mucus to buffer
-chime - mixture of digestion watery mass of food
when chime enters the duodenum
function of the 3 large salivary glands
facilitate taste , defends oral mucosa and tongue from infection
secrete directly onto a surface or into a duct
do not dump their products onto a surface or into a duct
instead secrete their product into the blood
hormone in ECF
secretions meant to act locally