Chapter 10 - The Muscular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 - The Muscular System Deck (36):

Origins, Insertions and Actions

A. Origin – orginates from, usually a fixed or immovable point of attachment for muscle
B. Insertion – where it inserts, usually on a moveable bone
C. Action – defines the effect that’s exhibited through contraction


Functional Classification of Muscles (AASF)

A. Agonists – prime mover, leaders of muscle or muscle group that has a specific movement
B. Antagonists – against the leaders, they oppose or reverse a particular movement
C. Synergists – help prime movers, they add extra force to the same movement, they reduce unnecessary movement as the prime movers contract
D. Fixators – prime stabilizers of a joint and they exhibit their action when other muscles


Arrangement of Muscle Fascicles (CCPFUBM)

A. Circular – the fascicles are arranged in concentric rings
B. Convergent – muscle has a broad origin and its fascicles will converge with to a single tendon of insertion
C. Parallel – long axis of fascicles runs parallel to the long axis of the muscle
D. Fusiform – separate class of spindle shaped muscle, falls under a parallel class – biceps
E. Unipennate – fascicles are short and they attach obliquely to a central tendon which runs the length of the muscle which runs the entire length of the muscle, the fascicles insert only in ONE side of the tendon
F. Bipennate – fascicles insert into the tendon from opposite sides (looks like a feather)
G. Multipennate – this looks like many feathers situated side by side with their quills into ONE tendon


Naming Muscles

A. Location – bone or body region which the muscle is associated
B. Shape – named according to their dominate shape
C. Relative size – maximus, minimus, longeus and brevious
D. Direction of fascicles – some names reveals the direction of the fibers
E. Number of origins – biceps, triceps, and quadriceps
F. Location of origin and insertion – sternoclidomastiod – sternal and mastoid
G. Action – flex or extendsor or adductor, abduction


Facial Expressions: Epicranius

Epicranius – occipital and frontal belly
O: frontal – galea aponeurotica; occipital – occipital and temporal bones
I: frontal – skin of eyebrows and root of nose; occipital – galea aponeurotica
A: frontal – raises eyebrows, wrinkles forehead; occipital – fixes aponeuroses and pulls scalp posterioly


Facial Expressions: Orbicularis Oculi

Around the eyes
O: frontal and maxillary bones and ligaments around orbit
I: tissue of eyelid
A: protects eyes from intense light and injury, blinking


Facial Expressions: Orbicularis Oris

Around the lips/ helps forms lips
O: arises indirectly from maxilla and mandible; fibers blended with fibers of other facial muscles associated with the lips
I: encircles mouth; inserts into muscle and skin at angles of mouth
A: closes lips, purses lips, etc.


Mastication (Chewing): Masseter

Zygomatic and mandible
O: Zygomatic arch and maxilla
I: angle and ramus of mandible
A: prime mover of jaw closure, elevates mandible


Mastication (Chewing): Temporalis

Temporal bone
O: temporal fossa
I: coronoid process of mandible
A: Closes jaw


Mastication (Chewing): Buccinator

Pursing lips
O: molar region of maxilla and mandible
I: orbicularis oris
A: draws corner of mouth laterally, holds food between teeth during chewing


Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Suprahyoid - Digastric

O: lower margin of mandible and mastoid process of the temporal bone
I: by a connective tissue loop to hyoid bone
A: elevate hyoid bone and steady it during swallowing and speech


Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Suprahyoid - Mylohyoid

O: medial surface of mandible
I: hyoid bone and median raphe
A: elevates hyoid bone and floor of mouth


Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Infrahyoid - Stemohyoid

O: manubrium and medial end of clavicle
I: lower margin of hyoid bone
A: depresses larynx and hyoid bone if mandible is fixed


Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Infrahyoid - Stemothyroid

O: posterior surface of manbrum of sternum
I: thyroid cartilage
A: pulls thyroid cartilage


Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Infrahyoid - Thyohyoid

O: thyroid cartilage
I: hyoid bone
A: depresses hypoid bone and elevates larynx


Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Head Movement - Stemocleidomastoid

O: manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavicle
I: mastoid process of temporal bone and superior nuchal line of occipital bone
A: prime mover of active head flexion, neck flexion


Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Head Movement - Scalenes

O: transverse process of cervical vertebrae
I: anterolaterally on first two ribs
A: elevate first two ribs; flex and rotate neck


Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Head Movement - Splenius

O: ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of vertebrae C7 – T6
I: mastoid process of temporal bone and occipital bone, transverse process of C2 – C4 vertebrae
A: extend or hyperextend head; when splenius muscles on one side


Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Trunk Movement - Erector Spinae Group - Iliocostalis

O: iliac crests, inferior 6 ribs thoracic, ribs 3-6 cervices
I: angels of ribs, transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
A: extend vertebral column, maintain erect posture


Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Trunk Movement - Erector Spinae Group - Longissiumus

O: transverse processes of lumbar through cervical vertebrae
I: transverse processes of thoracic or cervical vertebrae and to ribs superior to orgin as indicated by name, capitis inserts into mastoid process of temporal bone
A:thoracis and cervicis act together to extend vertebral column and acting on one side


Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Trunk Movement - Erector Spinae Group - Spinalis

O: spines of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae
I: spines of upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae
A: extends vertebral column


Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column: Trunk Movement - Multifidus (zigzag)

O: sacrum and the eretor spina apolnerousis also on the posterior superior iliac spine, iliac crest, and from all the transverse process of vertebrae
I: into the spinous processes from the sacrum all the way up to the axis
A: stabilizes the vertebral column


Muscles of the Thorax: External Intercostals

O: inferior border of rib above
I: superior border of rib below
A: pull ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage


Muscles of the Thorax: Internal Intercostals

O: superior border of rib below
I: inferior border of rib above
A: they draw ribs together and depress rib cage


Muscles of the Thorax: Diaphragm

Underneath ribs


Muscles of the Abdominal Walls

1. Rectus abdominis
2. External oblique
3. Internal Oblique
4. Transversus abdominis


Superficial Muscles of the Thorax

1. Anterior thorax
a. Pectoralis minor
b. Serratus anterior
2. Posterior thorax
a. Trapezius
b. Levator scapulae
c. Rhomboid major
d. Rhomboid minor


Muscles that Cross the Shoulder Joint

1. Pectoralis major
2. Latissimus dorsi
3. Deltoid
4. Subscapularis
5. Supraspinatus
6. Infraspinatus
7. Teres minor
8. Teres major


Muscles that Cross the Elbow Joint

1. Posterior muscle
a. Triceps brachii
2. Anterior muscles
a. Biceps brachii
b. Brachialis
c. Brachioradialis
d. Coraco Brachialis


Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Muscles

a. Pronator teres
b. Flexor carpi radialis
c. Palmaris longus
d. Flexor carpi ulnaris
e. Flexor digitorum superficialis
f. Flexor pollicis longus


Muscles of the Forearm: Posterior Muscles

a. Extensor carpi radialis longus
b. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
c. Extensor digitorum
d. Extensor carpi ulnaris
e. Supinator


Muscles that Cross the Hip and Knee Joints: Anterior and Medial Muscles

a. Iliopsoas group
i. Iliacus
ii. Psoas major
b. Sartorius
c. Adductor magnus
d. Adductor longus
e. Gracilis
f. Quadriceps femoris
i. Rectus femoris
ii. Vastus lateralis
iii. Vastus medialis 210
iv. Vastus intermedius
g. Tensor fasciae latae


Muscles that Cross the Hip and Knee Joints: Posterior Muscles

a. Gluteus maximus
b. Gluteus medius
c. Gluteus minimus
d. Hamstrings group
i. Biceps femoris
ii. Semitendinosus
iii. Semimembranosus


Muscles of the Leg: Anterior and Lateral Muscles

a. Tibialis anterior
b. Fibularis longus
c. Fibularis brevis


Muscles of the Leg: Posterior Muscles

a. Triceps surae group
i. Gastrocnemius
ii. Soleus
b. Flexor digitorum longus
c. Flexor hallucis longus
d. Tibialis posterior


Rotator Cup

a. Subscapularis
b. Supraspinatus
c. Infraspinatus
d. Teres minor