Chapter 27 - The Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 27 - The Reproductive System Deck (15):
1

Differences between Repo and Other Systems

1. Primary sex organs and gonads (gametes and sex cells)
2. Accessory organs (ducts, glands and external genitalia); unlike other organs it doesn’t work until puberty

2

Functions

1. Common function – produce offspring
2. Specific male function – manufactures male gametes (sperm) and delivers them to the female repo tract, where fertilization occurs
3. Specific female function – produce female gametes (ova or eggs)

3

Male: Testes

1. Functions – produce sperm
2. Structures
a. Tunica vaginalis – 2 layered outer tunic and derives from the out pocketing of the peritoneum (serous layer)
b. Tunica albuginea – deeper fibrous capsule, white coat and it forms septa that dividers the testes into about 250 lobules that contain seminiferous tubules
c. Seminiferous tubules – found in septa; actual sperm factories, surround by myoid cells
d. Myoid cells – smooth muscles cells that squeeze sperm and testicular fluids out of the testes
e. straight tubule – convey sperm to the rete testis
f. Rete testis – tubular network on the posterior side of the testes and it receives sperm from the straight tubule
g. Interstitial cells – leydag cells – lying in the soft connective tissue that surround the seminiferous tubules and they produce androgens (testosterone)

4

Male: External Genitalia - Scrotum

1. Functions – keep testes at a temperature that’s slightly lower than the rest of the body
2. Structures – 2 sets of muscles that respond to change in temperature
i. Dartos muscle – layer of smooth muscles that in the superficial fascia and it wrinkles the skin
ii. Spermatic cord – connective tissue sheath that contains nerve fibrous, vessels, and lymphatic; it passes through the inguinal canal
A. Cremaster muscles – bands of skeletal muscle that arise from the internal oblique muscle; what elevates the testes
B. Testicular artery – long branch from the abdominal aorta and it supplies the testes
i. pampiniform venous plexus – gives rise to testicular veins
C. Sensory nerves – transmit impulses and they result in pain and nausea

5

Male: External Genitalia - Penis

a. Functions – designed to deliver sperm into the female repo tract and remove waste fluids (urine)
b. Structures
i. Glans penis – enlarged tip
A. Prepuce – loose skin covering found around the glans penis (foreskin)
ii. Shaft – body
A. Corpus spongiosum – aka mid-ventral erectile body; inner layer found surrounding the urethra, it expands distally forming the glands and proximally forms the bulb of the penis
B. Corpora cavernosa – paired dorsal erectile bodies; outer layer around the urethra and makes up most of the penis; it is surrounded by the tunica albuginea
iii. Root
A. Bulb – covered externally by a sheet like bolbus spongiousis muscle and is secured to the urogenital diaphragm
B. Crura – formed by the proximal ends of the erectile body

6

Male: Duct System

Take sperm from the testes to the body’s exterior; its continuous with the tubules of the testes
1. Epididymis – cup shape and 3.8 cm long
a. Functions – store sperm
b. Structures
i. Head – contains the efferent ductules
A. Efferent ductules – cap the superior aspect of the testes and they take sperm from the rete testes
ii. Body and tail – posterioral lateral area of the testes
A. Duct of epididymis – uncoiled length (20ft)
2. Ductus deferens – vast deferens – 18 inches long
a. Ampulla of ductus deferens – terminal part; joins the duct of the seminus vesicul
3. Ejaculatory duct – in the prostate that empties to the urethra (prostatic)
4. Urethra
a. Prostatic urethra – surround by the prostate gland
b. Membranous urethra – intermediate part and it’s found in the urogenital diaphragm
c. Spongy urethra - runs through the penis and opens to the outside
d. External urethral orifice – the opening

7

Male: Accessory Glands

1. Function – produce the bulk of semen (sperm + testicular fluid + the accessory gland secretions)
2. Glands
a. Seminal vesicles – paired large hollow gland that lie on the posterior bladder surface
b. Prostate – single donut shaped gland (peach pit size); encircles the urethra inferior to the bladder
c. Bulbourethral glands – paired (pea sized) found inferior to the prostate gland
3. Semen – sperm + testicular fluid + accessory gland secretions
4. Sperm
a. Head – contains DNA
i. Acrosome – lysosome like; produced by the golgi apparatus; contains hydrolytic enzymes that enables sperm to penetrate and enter an egg
b. Midpiece – contains mitochondria
c. Tail – flagellum; helps propel it

8

Female: Ovaries

1. Functions – produce ova and sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
2. Structures
a. Ovarian ligament – anchors the ovary medially to the uterus
b. Suspensory ligament – anchors the ovary laterally to the pelvic wall
c. Broad ligament – peritoneal fold that tents over the uterus and supports the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina and encloses the ovarian ligaments
d. Germinal epithelium – layer of cuboidal epithelia cells that surrounds the tunica albuginea and it’s a continuation of the peritonea
e. Tunica albuginea – fibrous surround of each ovary; ligaments carry blood vessels
f. Cortex – outer part and it houses the forming gametes
g. Medulla – middle part and it contains the largest blood vessels
h. Follicles – tiny sac like structures that are embedded in the connective tissue of the cortex
i. Corpus luteum – glandular structure that’s formed by the ruptured follicle after ovulation

9

Female: Duct System - Uterine Tubes

a. Function – receive the ovulated oocyte and are the site where fertilization occurs
b. Structures
i. Infundibulum – open funnel shape structure that contains cilia
A. Fimbriae – ciliated finger like projections found at the infundibulum
ii. Ampulla – where fertilization occurs
iii. Isthmus – superior lateral region; where the tubes empty into the uterus
iv. Ciliated cells – help carry the oocyte
v. Nonciliated cells – contains dense microvilli and they produce a secretion that keeps the ooctye and sperm moist and nourished
vi. Broad ligament – mesosalpinx – closest to tubes, mesovarium – around the ovary and mesometrium – bottom of ovary; visceral peritoneum that covers the uterine tubes

10

Female: Uterus

a. Functions – receive, retain and nourish a fertilized ovum
b. Structures
i. Fundus – rounded region superior to the entrance to the uterine tubes
ii. Isthmus – slightly narrowed region between the body and the cervix
iii. Body – major portion of the uterus
iv. Cervix – narrow neck or outlet that projects into the vagina inferiorly
v. Uterine wall
vi. Broad ligament – mesosalpinx – closest to tubes, mesovarium – around the ovary and mesometrium – bottom of ovary; visceral peritoneum that covers the uterine tubes
vii. Round ligament – anchors the uterus to the anterior body wall (small support)

11

Female: Uterus - Uterine Wall

A. Perimetrium – incomplete outer most serous layer
B. Myometrium – bulky middle layer; interlacing bundles of smooth muscles (contracts during labor)
C. Endometrium – mucosal lining of the uterine cavity; simple columnar epithelia resting on the lamina propea
1. Stratum functionalis – functional layer and it undergoes cyclic changes in response to levels of hormones and this layer is shed during menstruation
2. Stratum basalis – forms the new layer of stratum functionalis

12

Female: Vagina

Thinned walled tube (3-4 ins.) between the bladder and rectum and it extends from the cervix to the body exterior
a. Functions – passage way for the delivery of baby and menstrual flow; copulatory organ which receives the penis during intercourse
b. Structures
i. Vaginal fornix – vaginal recess produced by the upper end of the vaginal canal which loosely surrounds the cervix of the uterus
ii. Hymen – incomplete partition that’s formed by mucosa near the distal vaginal orifice; very vascular and may bleed when stretch or rupture

13

Female: External Genitalia

1. Labia majora – two elongated hair covered fatty skin folds
2. Labia minora – 2 thin hair free skin folds and enclosed by the labia majora
3. Vestibule – recess which contains the external openings of the urethra and the vagina
a. Vaginal orifice – vaginal opening
b. uretheral ofifice -
c. Greater vestibular glands – pea sized glands which keeps the vestibula most and lubricated
4. Clitoris – small protruding structure of erectile tissue with nerve endings

14

Female: Mammary Glands

1. Function – produce milk
2. Structures
a. Lobes – 15-20 lobes that radiate around and open at the nipple
b. Suspensory ligaments – inter lobar connective tissue that attaches the breast to the underlying muscle facia and to the overlying dermis
c. Alveoli – produce mike
d. Lactiferous ducts – open to the outside at the nipple
e. Lactiferous sinuses – where milk accumulates during nourishing
f. Nipple – central placed and found protruding
g. Areola – ring of pigmented skin surrounds the nipple of each breast

15

Development of External Genitalia

A. Genital tubercle – a small project on the external body surface of all embryos (before 7 week)
1. Males – penis
2. Females – clitoris
B. Urethral fold – flanking the urethral groove
1. Males – fuse at the mid line helping to form the spongy urethra of the penis; remains un-fused at the tip where it gives rise to the urethra ofifice
2. Females – labia minora
C. Labioscrotal swelling
1. Males – scrotum
2. Females – labia majora