Chapter 17 - Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - Blood Deck (16):
1

Components

Liquid and cellular; specialized connective tissue where formed elements (living blood cells) are suspended in the plasma
1. Formed elements
a. Erythrocytes – red blood cells and transport O2 and CO2
b. Leukocytes – white blood cells; white blood cells, found in the buffy coat
c. Platelets – cells fragments that help stop bleeding; also found in buffy coat
2. Plasma – non living fluid matrix, straw colored and it suspends the formed elements (cells)
3. Buffy Coat – thin whitish layer between the plasma and erythrocytes; leukocytes and platelets; white blood cells

2

Characteristics

1. Color – varies depending on how much oxygen its carrying (bright red – O2 rich; dark red – O2 poor)
2. Density and viscosity – more dense than water and its 5xs more viscous than water (thickness)
3. pH – slightly alkaline 7.35-7.45
4. Temperature – higher than the temperature than body 104

3

Functions

1. Distribution – delivering O2 and nutrients; transports metabolic wastes and hormones
2. Regulation – regulates body temperature, pH and fluid volume
3. Protection – prevents blood loss and infections

4

Plasma

Straw colored sticky fluid; mostly water and contains up to 100 solutes
A. Water – 90%
B. Solutes
1. Proteins – most abundant, 8%, most produced in liver
a. Albumin – 60% of plasma protein; acts as a carrier to shuttle molecules, blood buffer, major protein in plasma osmotic pressure
b. Globulin – 3 types (alpha, beta and gama), 36% of plasma protein
c. Fibrinogen – 4% forms fibrin threads of blood clot
2. Nitrogenous wastes – byproducts of cellular metabolism (uriea, uric acid and creatnay)
3. Organic nutrients – materials which are absorbed in the GI tract and are transported for use throughout the body (glucose, other simple carbs, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterols, and vitamins)
4. Inorganic ions – electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium)
5. Respiratory gases – O2 and CO2
6. Hormones – steroid

5

Formed Elements

1. Cell status – 2 of 3 cells aren’t true cells (complete) only leukocytes are complete cells
2. Longevity – most survive only for a few days 3. Amitotic – don’t divide

6

Formed Elements: Erythrocytes

a. Size and shape – biconcave discs (flattened) with depressed centers, small 7.5 micrometers
b. Organelles – NONE; enucleate
c. Proteins
i. Hemoglobin – red blood cell protein that functions in gas transport
ii. Spectrin – network of protein that maintains erythrocyte shape

7

Formed Elements: Erythrocytes - Function

a. Hemoglobin – protein that makes red blood cells red and it binds easily with O2 transport respiratory gases O2 and CO2
i. Globin – protein with 4 poly peptide chains; each bind to a ring like heme group
ii. Heme – red pigment that contains an atom of iron

8

Leukocytes

White blood cells, only formed element that is a complete cell
1. Characteristics
a. Diapedesis – able to slip out of the capillary blood vessels
b. Positive chemotaxis – chemical trail is left by molecules which get released by damaged cells is
c. Amoeboid motion – amoeba (crawling)

9

Leukocytes: Type - Graulocytes: Neutrophils

Membrane bound cytoplasmic granules
i. Neutrophils – aka – PMN cells – most numerous white blood cells 50-70%
A. Structure – stain pail lilac and the nucleus consists of 3-6 lobes
B. Function – phagocytize bacteria

10

Leukocytes: Type - Graulocytes: Eosinophils

2-4%
A. Structure – nuclei are bilobed and they have red cytoplasmic granules
B. Function – kill parasitic worms; play a role in allergy

11

Leukocytes: Type - Graulocytes: Basophils

<1%
A. Structure – bilobed nucleus with large purplish cytoplasmic granules that contain histamine
B. Function – release histamine and other inflammation mediators and heparin

12

Leukocytes: Type - Agranulocytes

White blood cells that lack visible cytoplasmic granules, nuclei are typically round or kidney shape

13

Leukocytes: Type - Agranulocytes: Lymphocytes

25%; divided into B and T lymphocytes – B becomes plasma cells that produce antibodies which combat antigens; T – function in the immune response by acting against viruses and tumor cells
A. Structure – nucleus spherical or indented and cytoplasm is pale blue
B. Function – mount an immune response

14

Leukocytes: Type - Agranulocytes: Monocytes

3-8% of white blood cells and are they largest leukocytes
A. Structure – U or kidney shaped nucleus and have a gray blue cytoplasm
B. Function – develop into macrophages and important for chronic infections

15

Platelets (cell fragments)

1. Structure – cytoplasmic fragments and contain granules, they stain deep purple
2. Function – seal small tears in blood vessels and involved in blood clotting

16

Development of Formed Elements

1. Hemocytoblasts – give rise to all formed elements, basically stem cell
2. Erythrocytes – mature red blood cells; erythropoiesis – production of red blood cells
3. Leukocytes
a. Myeloid stem cells – give rise to all other formed elements
b. Lymphoid stem cells – produce lymphocytes
4. Platelets – cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes; blue staining outer region and an inner area which will contain purple staining granules; blood clotting
a. Megakaryocytes – form platelets