Chapter 8 - Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Joints Deck (33):
1

Joints

A. Definition – site where two or more bones come to meet
B. Functions – give skeleton mobility and they help hold the skeleton together

2

Classification of Joints: Functional

A. Functional classification – based on the amount of movement that’s allowed at the joint
1. Synarthroses – immovable joint (axial skeleton)
2. Amphiarthroses – slightly movable joint (axial skeleton)
3. Diarthroses – freely movable joints – they dominate in the limbs

3

Classification of Joints: Structural

Structural classification – focus on the material that binds the bones together and whether or not joint cavity is present
1. Fibrous joints – immovable; sutures – coronal, squamous, etc., joint between the tibia and fibula and tooth
2. Cartilaginous joints – rigid or slightly movable; nose
3. Synovial joints – freely movable joints; knee, shoulder and elbow

4

Fibrous Joints: Sutures

1. Definition – seams that occur ONLY between bones of the skull
2. Examples – sutures – interlocking wavy bone edges that are filled with short connective fibers

5

Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses

1. Definition – joint bones are connected exclusively by ligaments, chords or bands
2. Examples – ligaments that connect the distal ends of the tibia and fibula

6

Fibrous Joints: Gomphoses

1. Definition – peg in socket in fibrous joint
2. Example – articulation of a tooth with its bony alveolar socket

7

Cartilaginous Joints: Synchondroses

1. Definition – junction of cartilage; bar or plate of hyaline cartilage units bones; they are synarthoritc
2. Examples – epithelial plate (found in long bones) and the joint found in between costal cartilage and the first ribs

8

Cartilaginous Joints: Symphyses

1. Definition – amphiartic – articular surface of the bones are cover with articular (hyaline cartilage) which are fused with an intervening pad or plate of fibrocartilage; main connecting material (is compressible and a shock absorber – so it allows minimal movement)
2. Examples – intravertebrial discs and pubic symphysis

9

Synovial Joints

A. Synovial joint structure
1. Articular cartilage – glassy-smooth hyaline cartilage cover the opposing bones surfaces (absorbs compression and keep bone ends from being crushed
2. Joint cavity – potential space that contains a small amount of synovial fluid
3. Articular capsule – joint cavity is enclosed inside of this capsule
a. Fibrous capsule – external layer and it’s tough and it’s composed of dense irregular connective tissue; it’s continuous with the periostea (outer coving of bone) of the articulating bones
b. Synovial membrane – the inner layer and it’s composed of loose connective tissue
4. Synovial fluid – slippery fluid (lubricant) that occupies all the free space within the joint capsule
5. Reinforcing ligaments – band like ligaments; they’re the thickened part of the fibrous capsule
6. Articular discs – aka menisci – discs or wedges of fibrocartledge which separate the articulating surfaces of the bones and joints

10

Synovial Joint Movements

Every skeletal muscle is attached to bone or other connective tissue structures at two points (origin - attached to the immovable bone and incursion – attached to a movable bone) movement occurs when the muscle contracts across the joints and the incursion moves toward the origin (shrink)

11

Synovial Joint Movements: Gliding

a. Definition – simplest type of joint movement; when one flat bones (or nearly flat bone surface) glides or slips over another without noticeable angulations or rotation
b. Examples – intra-carpal and intra-tarsal joints and articular processes of the vertebrae

12

Synovial Joint Movements: Angular Movements - Flexion, Extension and Hyperextension

A. Definitions – movements that increase or decrease the angle between two bones
B. Examples – flexion – bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint (bending head forward onto the chest) extension – increasing the angle; straighten the flexed neck; hyperextension – excessive extension that’s beyond the anatomical position

13

Synovial Joint Movements: Angular Movements - Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion

A. Definitions – dorsiflexion – up movement at the ankle joint; plantar flexion – down movement at the ankle joint
B. Examples – dorsiflexion – toes pointed up and plantar extension; plantar flexion – toes pointed down and dorsal extension

14

Synovial Joint Movements: Angular Movements - Abduction and Adduction

A. Definitions – abduction – moving away is movement of a limp away from the midline or median plane of the body, along the frontal plane; adduction – moving toward is the movement of a limp toward the body midline or toward the midline of the hand or foot
B. Examples – abduction – away and adduction – moving toward

15

Synovial Joint Movements: Angular Movements - Circumduction

A. Definition – moving a limp so that it describes a cone in space; it involves adduction,
B. Examples – using a lot of muscles at once (winding up to throw)

16

Rotation

a. Definition – turning of a bone along its own long axis
b. Examples – hip, shoulder and neck (lateral rotation – foot to face out or medial rotation – foot to face in)

17

Supination and Pronation

A. Definitions – describing movements of the radius and ulna; supination – turning backwards and rotating the forearm laterally so the palms face superiorly or pronation – turning forward radius around the ulna
B. Examples – supination – hold soup; pronation – dribbles a ball

18

Inversion and Eversion

A. Definitions – special movements at the foot
B. Examples – inversion – sole of the foot turns medially and eversion – sole is pointed or faces laterally

19

Protraction and Retraction

A. Definitions – none angular anterior and posterior movements in the transverse plane
B. Examples – at the mandible – protracting –under bite and retraction – overbite

20

Elevation and Depression

A. Definitions –elevation – lifting or elevating a body part and depression – moving it back down or moving it inferior
B. Examples – chewing – elevating and depressing the mandible; scapula – shrugging

21

Opposition

A. Definition – saddle joint movement between metacarpal one and the trapezium
B. Examples – touching the thumb to the other fingers of the same hand; makes human hand a fine tool for grasping and manipulating

22

Range of Motion: Synovial Joints

1. Nonaxial movement – slipping or gliding movements found in carpals
2. Uniaxial movement – movement in one plane; elbow joint (hinge joint, pivot joint)
3. Biaxial movement – movement in two planes; condyloid joint (knuckle), and saddle joint (thumb)
4. Multiaxial movement – movement in or around all three planes of space and axis (medial-lateral, posterior-anterior, and superior-inferior); ball and socket joint (shoulder joint)

23

Types of Synovial Joints: Plane Joints

a. Definition – none axial movement, they have a flat articular surface and they make only short none axial gliding movement
b. Examples – intra-carpal and intra-tarsal joints and intraveterbral joints

24

Types of Synovial Joints: Hinge Joints

a. Definition – uniaxial movement, these joints have a cylindrical end; the cylindrical end conforms to a trough shaped surface of another bone
b. Examples – elbow and intra-flange joints

25

Types of Synovial Joints: Pivot Joints

a. Definition– uniaxial movements; the roughened end of one bone conforms to a sleeve or ring composed bone or ligament
b. Examples – proximal radial and ulna joint, atlas and dense

26

Types of Synovial Joints: Condyloid Joints

a. Definition – ellipsoidal – biaxial movement both articulating surfaces are oval; the oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression of another bone
b. Examples – metacarpal phalangeal joints (knuckles)

27

Types of Synovial Joints: Saddle Joints

a. Definition – each articular surface has both concave and convex areas; it is shaped like a saddle
b. Examples – carpal- metacarpal of the thumb the ability to twiddle thumbs

28

Types of Synovial Joints: Ball and Socket

a. Definition – spherical or hemispherical head of one bone and it articulates with a cup like socket of another bone
b. Examples – shoulder and hip joint

29

Major Synovial Joints: Temporomandibular Joint

Temporomandibular joint – jaw joint; found anterior to ear
a. Bones involved – mandibular condyle which articulates with the inferior surface of the temporal bone
b. Description – mandibular condyle (egg shaped) articulates with the surface of the temporal bone has a more complex shape
c. Reinforcing ligament – lateral ligament
i. Lateral ligament – thickened loose articular capsule which functions to enclose the joint

30

Major Synovial Joints: Glenohumeral Joint

Glenohumeral joint – shoulder joint
a. Bones involved – humorous and the scapula
b. Description – ball and socket joint and the stability is sacrificed to provide a freely moveable joint
c. Reinforcing ligaments
i. Glenohumeral ligaments – three ligaments which strength the front of the capsule; they can be weak or absent
ii. Coracoacromial ligament – goes from the coracoid process to the acromion
iii. Coracohumeral ligament – comes from the coracoids

31

Major Synovial Joints: Coxal Joint

Coxal joint – hip joint
a. Bones involved – femur and coxal bone
b. Description – ball and socket joint; there is good range of motion but not as good as the shoulder
c. Reinforcing ligaments
i. Iliofemoral ligament – strong v shaped ligament that’s found on the anterior surface
ii. Ischiofemoral ligament – spiraling posterior ligament – it screws the femur head into the acetabulum when a person stands up straight providing stability
iii. Pubofemoral ligament – a triangular thickening of the inferior part of the capsule
iv. Ligamentum teres – flat intra capsular (inside the capsule) band and it runs from the femur head to the lower lip of the acetabulum

32

Major Synovial Joints: Knee Joint

a. Bones involved – femur, patella, and tibia
b. Description – largest and most complex joint of the body
c. Reinforcing ligaments
i. Patellar ligament – runs from the patella to the tibia below
ii. Fibular (lateral) and tibial (medial) collateral ligaments – extra capsular ligament and they prevent lateral and medial rotation when the knee is extended
iii. Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments – anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) – attaches to the anterior intracondular areas of the tibia and it passes pastorally laterally upward and it attaches to the medial side of the lateral condyle; it prevents forward sliding of the tibia. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) – it runs from the posterior intracondular area of the tibia and it passes arterially, medially, and superiorly to attach to the femur on the lateral side of the medial condyle

33

Major Synovial Joints: Elbow Joint

a. Bones involved – radius, ulna, and humorous
b. Description – stable and smoothly operating hinge joint that allows flexion and extension
c. Reinforcing ligaments
i. Anular ligament – found surround the head of the radius
ii. Radial collateral ligament – triangular ligament that is on the lateral side
iii. Ulnar collateral ligament – triangular ligament that is found the medial side