Chapter 10.1: Eye Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 10.1: Eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10.1: Eye Deck (70):
1

What does the outer layer of the inner eye consist of? (2)

cornea and the sclera

2

Define cornea

transparent anterior portion; allows light into the eye and participates in the focusing of light onto the back of the eye

3

Define sclera

the white of the eye; tough protective covering for most of the eyeball

4

What is the middle layer of the inner eye called?

uvea

5

What are the three parts of the uvea?

choroid, ciliary body, and iris

6

Define choroid

the inner lining of the sclera; contains blood vessels to nourish the eye

7

What are the two parts of the ciliary body?

the ciliary process and ciliary muscles

8

What is the purpose of the ciliary muscles?

adjust the shape of the lens for focusing

9

What is the purpose of the ciliary process?

produces aqueous humor

10

Define aqueous humor

a watery substance which bathes the anterior region of the eye

11

Define iris

the circular, colored portion of the eye

12

Define pupil

central opening in the iris that regulates the amount of light that enters the eye

13

Define retina

the inner layer of the eye

14

Define cones and rods

cells that transform light into nerve impulses

15

What is the purpose of the cones?

responsible for central and bright-light vision

16

Define fovea centralis

small depression at the center of the retina where the cones are concentrated

17

Define macula lutea

small yellowish area where the fovea centralis lies

18

What is the purpose of the rods?

responsible for peripheral and low-light vision and are concentrated in the periphery of the retina

19

Define optic disc or blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve begins, and the entry point for the major blood vessels of the eye; has no rods or cones and therefore does not produce an image

20

Define suspensory ligaments

ligaments that hold the lens in place

21

Define refraction

the bending of light

22

Define lens accomodation

lens-shape changing

23

Define trabecula

lattice-type or meshwork structure where the aqueous humor is first drained

24

What are the three places the aqueous humor drains to?

trabecula, canal of Schlemm, and the venous system

25

Define glaucoma

increased intraocular pressure due to inability to drain aqueous humor

26

Define vitreous humor

clear, jelly-like material in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains the spherical shape of the eyeball, holds the retina firmly against the choroid, and transmits light

27

What are the six parts of the outer eye?

orbital cavity, extrinsic ocular muscles, eyelids, conjunctival membrane, and lacrimal apparatus

28

Define orbital cavity

the bony depression into which the eyeball fits, providing protection

29

Define extrinsic ocular muscles

six muscles attached to the sclera of each eye that can move the eye in any direction

30

What are the names of the six extrinsic ocular muscles?

superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior oblique, and inferior oblique

31

Define rectus

straight

32

Define oblique

slanted

33

What is the purpose of the eyelid?

to shield the eye from light, dust. and trauma

34

Define conjunctival membrane

a thin mucous membrane lining the eyelids and the anterior part of the eye exposed to the air, providing protection and lubrication

35

What is the purpose of the lacrimal apparatus?

produces, delivers, and drains tears from the eyes, thereby cleaning and lubricating them

36

What is the purpose of the lacrimal glands?

produce the tears

37

What is the purpose of the lacrimal ducts?

to deliver tears to the eyes

38

Define punctae

small opening that drains tears from the eyes into a system of canals in the nose

39

Define lysozyme

an antibacterial enzyme secreted in tears that fight infectious microorganisms

40

What is transparent anterior portion; allows light into the eye and participates in the focusing of light onto the back of the eye?

cornea

41

What is the white of the eye; tough protective covering for most of the eyeball?

sclera

42

Define uvea

middle layer of the inner eye

43

What is the inner lining of the sclera; contains blood vessels to nourish the eye?

choroid

44

What is a watery substance which bathes the anterior region of the eye?

aqueous humor

45

What is the circular, colored portion of the eye?

iris

46

What is the central opening in the iris that regulates the amount of light that enters the eye?

pupil

47

What is the the inner layer of the eye called?

retina

48

What are the cells that transform light into nerve impulses called?

cones and rods

49

What is responsible for central and bright-light vision?

cones

50

What adjust the shape of the lens for focusing?

ciliary muscles

51

What produces aqueous humor?

ciliary process

52

What is the small depression at the center of the retina where the cones are concentrated?

fovea centralis

53

What is the small yellowish area where the fovea centralis lies?

macula latea

54

What is responsible for peripheral and low-light vision and are concentrated in the periphery of the retina?

rods

55

What is the point at which the optic nerve begins, and the entry point for the major blood vessels of the eye; has no rods or cones and therefore does not produce an image?

optic disc or blind spot

56

What are ligaments that hold the lens in place called?

suspensory ligaments

57

What is the bending of light called?

refraction

58

What is lens-shape changing called?

lens accommodation

59

What is the lattice-type or meshwork structure where the aqueous humor is first drained called?

trabecula

60

What is increased intraocular pressure due to inability to drain aqueous humor called?

glaucoma

61

What is the clear, jelly-like material in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains the spherical shape of the eyeball, holds the retina firmly against the choroid, and transmits light?

vitreous humor

62

What is the bony depression into which the eyeball fits, providing protection?

orbital cavity

63

What are the six muscles attached to the sclera of each eye that can move the eye in any direction?

extrinsic ocular muscles

64

What part's purpose is to shield the eye from light, dust. and trauma?

eyelid

65

What is a thin mucous membrane lining the eyelids and the anterior part of the eye exposed to the air, providing protection and lubrication?

conjuctival membrane

66

What parts purpose is to produces, delivers, and drains tears from the eyes, thereby cleaning and lubricating them?

lacrimal apparatus

67

What parts purpose is to produce the tears?

lacrimal glands

68

What parts purpose is to deliver tears to the eyes?

lacrimal ducts

69

What is small opening that drains tears from the eyes into a system of canals in the nose?

punctae

70

What is an antibacterial enzyme secreted in tears that fight infectious microorganisms?

lysozyme

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