Chapter 13.1: Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 13.1: Blood Deck (60):
1

Define plasma

liquid part of blood (55% of the blood)

2

Define formed elements

the solid portion of the blood (45% of the blood)

3

What are the three formed elements?

red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes; white blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes; and platelets or thrombocytes

4

What is the purpose of the plasma?

to transport fats, proteins, gases, salts, and hormones to their various destinations throughout the body and picks waste materials from organ cells

5

What are the three types of fats transported by the plasma?

triglyceride, phospholipid, and cholesterol

6

What are the three plasma proteins?

albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen

7

Define fibrinogen

a blood-clotting agent

8

Define serum

blood plasma that has the clotting factors removed

9

Define hemoglobin (Hgb)

a protein that contains iron and has the ability to bind with oxygen and carbon dioxide; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide

10

Define erythropoiesis

the maturation process for red blood cells

11

Define reticulocyte

red blood cells in the second-to-last stage of erythropoises

12

Define reticulocyte count

a laboratory test that measures the erythrocytes in red bone marrow and enters the bloodstream

13

How long does a red blood cell last?

120 days

14

What is the purpose of the leukocytes (white blood cells)?

to fight infections

15

What are the two types of leukocytes?

granular or agranular

16

What are the three types of granular leukocytes?

eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils

17

What is the purpose of the eosinophils?

to release chemicals into the bloodstream that can neutralize toxix substances

18

What is the purpose of basophils?

to release histamine

19

Define histamine

a natural toxin that initiates the inflammatory process by dilating the blood vessels

20

What is the purpose of neutrophils or polymorphonuclear leukocytes?

to ingest bacteria and other harmful matter through phagocytosis

21

What are the two types of agranular leukocytes?

monocytes or lymphocytes

22

What is the purpose of monocytes?

change to macrophages; ingest harmful microorganisms

23

What is the purpose of thrombocytes or platelets?

initiate blood-clotting when bleeding occurs; releases prothrombin and fibrinogen

24

Define undifferentiated cells

non-specialized cells

25

Define hemocytoblasts or blood stem cells

undifferentiated cell (undifferentiated blood cells)

26

Define differentiated cells

cells are no longer the same; they are specialized to a type

27

Define hematopoiesis

the general process of blood stem cells development into specialized or differentiated cells

28

Define leukopoises

development of leukocytes

29

Define thrombopoiesis

development of thrombocytes

30

Define antigen

any substance that stimulates the body's immune response (bacteria, viruses, and pollens)

31

What are the two types of antigens?

type A antigens and type B antigens

32

What are the four blood types?

type A, type B, and type AB, and type O

33

What type of antigens does type A blood have?

type A blood has type A antigens

34

What type of antigens does type B blood have?

type B blood has type B antigens

35

What type of antigens does type AB blood have?

type AB blood has type A and type B antigens

36

What type of antigens does type O blood have?

type O blood has none

37

Define agglutination

a clumping of red blood cells

38

What is the liquid part of blood (55% of the blood) called?

plasma

39

What is the solid portion of the blood (45% of the blood)?

formed elements

40

What part of the blood has the purpose of to transport fats, proteins, gases, salts, and hormones to their various destinations throughout the body and picks waste materials from organ cells?

plasma

41

What is blood plasma that has the clotting factors removed called?

serum

42

What is a protein that contains iron and has the ability to bind with oxygen and carbon dioxide; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide?

hemoglobin (Hgb)

43

What is the maturation process for red blood cells?

erythropoiesis

44

What are red blood cells in the second-to-last stage of erythropoises?

reticulocyte

45

What is a laboratory test that measures the erythrocytes in red bone marrow and enters the bloodstream?

reticulocyte count

46

What part of the blood has the purpose to fight infections?

leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs)

47

What part of the blood has the purpose to release chemicals into the bloodstream that can neutralize toxix substances?

eosinophils

48

What part of the blood has the purpose to release histamine?

basophils

49

What is a natural toxin that initiates the inflammatory process by dilating the blood vessels?

histamine

50

What part of the blood has the purpose to ingest bacteria and other harmful matter through phagocytosis?

neutrophils or polymorphonuclear leukocytes

51

What part of the blood has the purpose to change to macrophages; ingest harmful microorganisms?

monocytes

52

What part of the blood has the purpose to initiate blood-clotting when bleeding occurs; releases prothrombin and fibrinogen?

thrombocytes or platelets

53

What is the general process of blood stem cells development into specialized or differentiated cells?

hematopoises

54

What is the development of leukocytes called?

leukopoises

55

What is the development of thrombocytes called?

thrombopoises

56

What is any substance that stimulates the body's immune response (bacteria, viruses, and pollens) ?

antigens

57

What type blood has type A antigens?

type A blood has type A antigens

58

What type blood has type B antigens?

type B blood has type B antigens

59

What type blood has type AB antigens?

type AB blood has type A and type B antigens

60

What type blood has no antigens?

type O blood has none

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