Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 Deck (76):
1

origin

the attachment of a muscle's tendon to the stationary bone (origin= usually proximal; insertion is usually pulled toward origin)

2

insertion

the attachment of a muscle's other tendon to the movable bone (insertion= usually distal; insertion is usually pulled toward origin)

3

belly (body)

the fleshy portion of the muscle between the tendons

4

Analogy for origin, insertion and belly

A spring on a door: the part of the spring attached to the frame is the origin; the part attached to the door is the insertion; the coiled middle portion of the spring is the belly.

5

lever

rigid structure that can move around a fixed point: fulcrum

6

fulcrum

fixed point that the lever can move around

7

effort (E)

causes the movement

8

load/resistance

opposes the movement; usually the weight of the body part or resistance that the moving body part is trying to overcome (i.e. weight of a book you're trying to lift)

9

prime mover/ agonist

muscle that contracts to cause an action

10

antagonist

stretches and yields the effects of the prime mover

11

synergists

contract and stabilize the intermediate joints to prevent unwanted movements at intermediate joints or to aid the movement of the prime mover

12

fixator

stabilize the origin of the prime mover sot hat the prime mover can act more efficiently

13

how skeletal muscles are named

Direction, size, shape, action, number of origins, location, origin and insertion

14

occipitofrontalis

location: face

15

frontal belly (frontalis)

location: superficial to the frontal bone
action: draws scalp anteriorly, raises eyebrows, wrinkles skin of forehead horizontally

16

occipital belly

location: superficial to occipital bone
action: draws scalp posteriorly

17

orbicularis oris

location: mouth
action: closes and protrudes lips, compresses lips against teeth, shapes lips during speech

18

zygomaticus major

location: mouth
action: draws angle of mouth superiorly and laterally (smiling)

19

buccinator

location: mouth
action: presses cheeks against teeth and lips (blowing, sucking), draws corners of mouth laterally, assists in chewing (keeps food between teeth)

20

orbicularis oculi

location: orbit/ eyebrow
action: closes eye

21

masseter (origin and insertion too)

location: mandible
action: elevates mandible (closing mouth)
origin: maxilla and zygomatic arch
insertion: angle and ramus of mandible

22

temporalis (origin and insertion too)

location: mandible
action: elevates and retracts mandible
origin: temporal bone
insertion: coronoid process and ramus of mandible

23

sternocleidomastoid (origin and insertion too)

location: neck
action: flex cervical portion of vertebral column, extend head, flex neck and head to same side, rotate head
origin: sternal head: manubrium of sternum; clavicular head: medial third of clavicle
insertion: mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral half of superior nuchal line of occipital bone

24

rectus abdominis (origin and insertion too)

location: pelvis
action: flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen (aid defecation, urination and childbirth)
origin: pubic crest and pubic symphysis
insertion: cartilage of ribs 5-7 and xiphoid process

25

external oblique

location: abdomen
action: working together: compress abdomen, flex vertebral column, acting alone: laterally flex vertebral column, rotate vertebral column

26

internal oblique

location: abdomen
action: acting together: compress abdomen and flex vertebral column, acting alone: laterally flex vertebral column and rotate vertebral column

27

transversus abdominis

location: abdomen
action: compresses abdomen

28

diaphragm

location: abdomen
action: contraction of diaphragm = flatten resulting in inhalation, relaxation= exhalation

29

external intercostals

location: abdomen
action: contraction= elevates ribs resulting in inhalation, relaxation= depresses ribs resulting in exhalation

30

internal intercostals

location: abdomen
action: contraction= elevates ribs resulting in inhalation, relaxation= depresses ribs resulting in exhalation

31

trapezius (origin and insertion too)

location: posterior thoracic
action: rotate scapula, adduct scapula, depress and upward rotate scapula, stabilize scapula
origin: superior nuchal line of occipital bone, ligaments nuclei and spines of C7-T12
insertion: clavicle and acromion and spine of scapula

32

levator scapulae (origin and insertion too)

location: posterior thoracic
action: elevates scapula and rotates it downward
origin: transverse processes of C1-C4
insertion: superior vertebral border of scapula

33

rhomboid major

location: posterior thoracic
action: elevates and adducts scapula, rotates it downward (stabilizes scapula)
origin: spines of T2-T5
insertion: vertebral border of scapula inferior to spine

34

pectoralis major (origin and insertion too)

location: chest
action: adducts and rotates arm at shoulder joint; clavicular head flexes arm, sternocostal head extends flexed arm to side of trunk
origin: clavicle, sternum, costal cartilage of second to sixth ribs
insertion: greater tubercle and lateral lip of inter tubercular sulcus of humerus

35

latissimus dorsi

location: interior part of the back
action: extends, adducts and rotates arm at shoulder joint

36

deltoid (origin and insertion too)

location: shoulder
action: lateral fibres abduct arm at shoulder joint; anterior fibres flex and medially rotate arm at shoulder joint; posterior fibres extend and laterally rotate arm at shoulder joint
origin: acromial extremity of clavicle, accordion of scapula and spine of scapula
insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus

37

subscapularis

location: shoulder
action: medially rotates arm at shoulder joint

38

supraspinatus (origin and insertion too)

location: shoulder
action: assists deltoid muscle in abducting arm at shoulder joint
origin: subscapular fossa of scapula
insertion: lesser tubercle of humerus

39

infraspinatus

location: shoulder
action: laterally rotates arm at shoulder joint

40

teres major

location: shoulder
action: extends arm at shoulder joint and assists in adduction and medial rotation of arm at shoulder joint

41

teres minor

location: shoulder
action: laterally rotates and extends arm at shoulder joint

42

biceps brachii (origin and insertion too)

location: bicep
action: flexes forearm at elbow joint, supinates forearm at radioulnar joints and flexes arm at shoulder joint
origin: supraglenoid tubercle and coracoid process of scapula

43

brachialis

location: bicep
action: flexes forearm at elbow joint

44

brachioradialis

location: bicep
action: flexes forearm at elbow joint; supinates and pronates forearm at radioulnar joints to neutral position

45

triceps brachii (origin and insertion too)

location: tricep
action: extends forearm at elbow joint and extends arm at shoulder joint
origin: infraglenoid tubercle, lateral and posterior surface of humerus
insertion: olecranon of ulna

46

pronator teres

location: forearm
action: pronates forearm at radioulnar joints and weakly flexes forearm at elbow joint

47

supinator

location: forearm
action: supinates forearm at radioulnar joints

48

flexor carpi radialis (origin and insertion too)

location: forearm
action: flexes and abducts hand at wrist joint
origin: medial epicondyle of humerus
insertion: second and third metacarpals

49

palmaris longus

location: forearm
action: weakly flexes hand at wrist joint

50

flexor carpi ulnaris (origin and insertion too)

location: forearm
action: flexes and adducts hand at wrist joint
origin: medial epicondyle of humerus and superior posterior border of ulna
insertion: pisiform, hamate and base of fifth metacarpal

51

flexor digitorium superficialis (origin and insertion too)

location: forearm
action: flexes middle phalanx of each finger and hand at wrist joint
origin: medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna
insertion: middle phalanx of each finger

52

extensor carpi radialis longus

location: forearm
action: extends and abducts hand at wrist joint

53

extensor digitorium (origin and insertion too)

location: forearm
action: extends distal and middle phalanges of each finger and hand at wrist joint
origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus
insertion: distal and middle phalanges of each finger

54

extensor carpi ulnaris (origin and insertion too)

location: forearm
action: extends and adducts hand at wrist joint
origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna
insertion: fifth metacarpal

55

psoas major (origin and insertion too)

location: femur
action: flex thigh at hip joing, rotate thigh laterally and flex trunk on hip
origin: transverse processes and bodies of lumbar vertebrae
insertion: with iliac into lesser trochanter of femur

56

iliacus

location: pelvis
action: n/a

57

gluteus maximus (origin and insertion too)

location: butt
action: extends thigh at hip joint and laterally rotates thigh; helps lock knee in extension
origin: iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx and aponeurosis of sacrospinalis
insertion: ilitobial tract of fascia late and superior lateral part of linea aspera

58

gluteus medius

location: butt
action: abducts thigh at hip joint and medially rotates thigh

59

adductor longus

location: femur
action: adducts and flexes thigh at hip joints and rotates thigh

60

adductor magnus

location: femur
action: adducts thigh at hip joint and rotates thigh

61

quadriceps femoris

location: femur
action: n/a

62

rectus femoris (origin and insertion too)

location: femur
action: extend leg at knee joint; flexes thigh at hip joint
origin: anterior inferior iliac thigh
insertion: patella, tibial tuberosity

63

vastus lateralis

location: thigh
action: extend leg at knee joint

64

vastus medialis

location: thigh
action: extend leg at knee joint

65

vastus intermedius

location: thigh
action: extend leg at knee joint

66

sartorius

location: thigh
action: weakly flexes leg at knee joint; weakly flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

67

hamstrings

collective designation for biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
location: posterior thigh
action: extends thigh at hip joint

68

biceps femoris (origin and insertion too)

location: thigh
action: flexes leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip joint
origin: long head arises from ischial tuberosity; short head arises from linea aspera of femur
insertion: head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia

69

semitendinosus

location: thigh
action: flexes leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip joint

70

semimembranosus

location: thigh
action: flexes leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip joint

71

tibialis anterior (origin and insertion too)

location: anterior leg
action: dorsiflexes foot at ankle joint and inverts foot at inter tarsal joints
origin: lateral condyle and body of tibia and interosseous membrane
insertion: first metatarsal and first cuneiform

72

extensor digitorium longus (origin and insertion too)

location: anterior leg
action: dorsiflexes foot at ankle joint and extends distal and middle phalanges of each toe at interphalangeal joints
origin: lateral condyle of tibia, anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
insertion: middle and distal phalanges of toes 2-5

73

fibularis (perioneus) longus

location: anterior leg
action: plantar flexes foot at ankle joints and everts foot at inter tarsal joints

74

gastrocnemius (origin and insertion too)

location: superior posterior compartment of leg
action: plantar flexes foot at ankle joint and flexes leg at knee joint
origin: lateral and medial condyles of femur and capsule of knee
insertion: calcaneus by way of calcanea tendon

75

soleus

location: superior posterior compartment of leg
action: plantar flexes foot at ankle joint

76

flexor digitorum longus (origin and insertion too)

location: deep posterior compartment of leg
action: plantar flexes foot at ankle joint, flexes phalanx o each toe
origin: middle third of posterior surface of tibia
insertion: distal phalanges of toes 2-5