Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Biology 235 > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (90)
Loading flashcards...
1

4 major elements of the body

O, C, H, N

2

8 lesser elements of the body

Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg, Fe

3

isotope

atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers

4

Ion

an atom that has a positive or negative charge because of unequal numbers of protons and electrons

5

molecule

when two or more atoms share electrons

6

compound

a substance that contains atoms of two or more different elements

7

free radical

an atom or group of atoms with an paired electron in the outermost shell

8

valence shell of electrons

outermost shell of electrons

9

ionic bond

the force of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges

10

cation

ion with a positive charge

11

anion

ion with a negative charge

12

electrolyte

an ionic compound that breaks apart into positive and negative ions in solution

13

covalent bond

two or more atoms share electrons

14

polar

the sharing of electrons is unequal - one atom attracts the electrons more strongly than the other

15

nonpolar

the sharing of electrons is equal

16

hydrogen bond

forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial negative charge of neighbouring electronegative atoms (F/O/N)

17

chemical reaction

occurs when new bonds form or old bonds break between atoms

18

metabolism

all the chemical reactions occurring in the body

19

catalyst

chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur.

20

anabolism/ synthesis reaction

when two or more atoms, ions or molecules combine to form two new and larger molecules
A + B = AB

21

catabolism/ decomposition reaction

split up large molecules into smaller atoms, ions or molecules
AB = A + B

22

exchange reaction

AB + CD = AD + BC

23

reversible reaction

the products can revert to the original reactants (indicated by two half arrows pointing in opposite directions) - sometimes reversible only under certain conditions
AB = A + B

24

inorganic compound

usually lack a carbon and are structurally simple. Can contain ionic and covalent bonds

25

organic compounds

always contain carbon, usually contain hydrogen and always have covalent bonds

26

water

most abundance inorganic compound in all living systems

27

water as a solvent

versatile solvent because its polar covalent bonds, in which electrons are shared unequally, create positive and negative regions.

28

hydrophillic

water loving (dissolve easily)

29

hydrophobic

water fearing ( not very water soluble)

30

hydrolysis

decomposition reactions break down large molecules into smaller molecules by the addition of a water molecule