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1

Positivism

The belief in objective data and avoidance of theoretical speculation. proof not abstract idea

2

logical positivism

belief in positive ideas but, combined with logic breaks into 2 parts

3

Empirical

Scientific observation of evidence to form logical conclusions

4

theoretical

rationalism, using evidence to form logical conclusions

5

the logic of modern physics

all concepts must have physical referents that can be defined

6

Operationism

the belief abstract, theoretical concepts can be relevant must be made objective , observable, and measurable

7

theory

set of interrelated propositions, a framework for prediction and explaining empirical events

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1.) what should psychology study?

Learning

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2.)Most behavior can be accounted by what?

Laws of conditioning

10

3. psychology must adopt the principle of?

operationism

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Differences

logical positivism must be used
theoretical terms must be operationally defined
reliance and operationism
animals vs humans

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who used animals?

Tolman. Hull, Skinner

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What do animals allow?

easier control of variables

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Who used Humans??

Bandura

15

Edward Chace Toleman rejected ?

introspection as a method

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what was Toleman not interested in?

internal experiences (thought) unless they could be objectively observed

17

Purposiveness

all behavior is goal directed ! we have a reason for doing what we do. you can tell what the purpose is by observing behavior

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Intervening variables

variables that change or modulate how the stimulus( environment) is interpreted and the behavior( response) that results

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how did Toleman define them?

operationally

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purpose and cognition were

theoretical constructs

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theoretical constructs can do what ???

describe, predict, and explain behavior

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what is an example of intervening variables?

thirst. one can be thirsty or not. when presented with water ( stimulus) a person responds based on their thirst (drinking or not drinking)

23

Toleman used what for learning?

Maze learning

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Cognitive map

an image of the area you are navigating, a mental map

25

Expectancy

how a decision will play out

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example of expectancy??

you expect a certain result every time you flip a light switch

27

Sign Gestalt

A learned relationship between environmental cues and expectancies regarding those cues

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ex. of sign Gestalt

after using a clicker you understand one button changes channels and one changes volume (this relationship is sign Gestalt)

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Latent learning ( Toleman)

knowledge is different than performance . no trying or reinforcement

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what did Toleman believe about rats and how they learned?

that you could learn a maze without trying and without reinforcement. by small exposure to it

31

Clark Hull
Hypothetic deductive theory

an idea about how intervening variables work to explain behavior (MANY PARTS)

32

Hull (Drive)

a biological need

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Hull what are biological needs?

food never goes away fully can be measured

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Hull (drive reduction)

organisms want to reduce drive to 0 so they feel content

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Hull (Habit strength)

whenever a behavior (response) successfully reduces a drive, it neg. reinforces behavior/

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Learning ( hull)

defined as an increase in habit strength. when a behavior successfully reduces a drive. increase in habit strength......drive reduction

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what did Hull take out of Toleman's approach?

mentalism

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what did Skinner believe in about psychology ?

believed psychology was about predicting & controlling behavior to make society better.

39

What did Skinner want to do? 3 things

Describe not explain
bottom up approach
experiment first and describe what happened.

40

what did Skinner use as a subject?

Single subject! (single animal)

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Operant conditioning

consequences of behavior control behavior

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Law of Acquisition

the strength of operant behavior increases when followed by reinforcing stimulus

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reinforcer

anything that increases the likelihood of behavior

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punishment

anything that decreases the likelihood of a behavior

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positive

the addition of something

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negative

the removal of something

47

schedule of reinforcement

rate of response varies as a function of the schedule reinforcement

48

partial/ intermittent reinforcement

reinforcement only happen sometimes

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continuous reinforcement

consistent every behavior rewarded with reinforce

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Example of pos punishment

Spanking

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example of neg punishment

removable of enjoyable behavior (grounding child) taking away toys.

52

Shaping

too complex to teach at once. reinforce partial behaviors

53

what did skinner try to invent that failed?

air cribs,( machine to out kid in.) pigeon guided missiles

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variable ratio

slot machine, eventually will get something out of it

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continuous reinforcement

every time you do a behavior receive reward

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variable interval

pop quiz don't know when its coming

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Watsonian behaviorism dates?
Neobehavorism dates?
sociobehaviorism

1913-1930
1930-1960
1960- present

58

Rationalism

logical reasoning making inferences

59

theory

testable hypotheses

60

what did Skinner not use??

theory

61

Operationalism

abstract theoretical concept are relevant

62

what do neobehavorist's do?1. 2. 3.

psych should study learning
laws of conditioning
operationalism