Flashcards in Neo and socio behaviorism Deck (34)
what are the 3 stages of behaviorism
1913-1930: Watsonian behaviorism
1960-present: Sociobehaviorism (neo-neobehaviorism) and the return to cognitive processes
what is positivism
emphasizes objective data and voids/minimizes theoretical speculation.
divides science into 2 parts
empiricism and rationalism together
the empirical ( empirical observation) and
the theoretical (rationalism - theoretical terms used to explain that which was observed)
what was the problem with theoretical terms?
The Logic of Modern Physics
precise definition of all physical concepts;
concepts lacking physical referents must be discarded
contemporary use of operational definitions
what is a concept?
sam as the procedures by which it is determined
abstract theoretical concepts are relevant but must be made objective, observable/measurable
a physical concept can be defined in precise terms relating to the set of operations or procedures determined
what do operational definitions connect?
theoretical terms to observable phenomena
a set of interrelated propositions, a framework for predicting and explaining empirical events.
how is theory evaluated?
accuracy of its predictions
1. Psychology should study learning
2. Most behavior can be accounted for by the laws of conditioning
3. psychology must adopt the principle of operationism
why are critters easier to use?
easier to control variables
what differs in critters
perceptual and learning processes
who was Edward Chace Toleman?
in animals and men
what did Toleman have no interest in?
had no interest in any presumed internal experiences unless accessible to objective observation
defined in objective behavioral terms
behavior is directed toward some goal
Purpose is seen in the behavior itself
Later what did Toleman study?
purpose concept used to explain behavior, seen as a determinant of behavior and “inferred” by observers.
Purpose is seen as what?
being with the organism
what did Toleman come to believe?
cognitive processes were influential in determining behavior.
Variables that intervened between environmental events and behavior
how did Toleman view purpose and condition?
theoretical constructs used to predict and explain behavior
what does Toleman bring to psychology
Abstract Scientific theory
what did Toleman go beyond in?
the causes of behavior
To understand the behavior one has to know what?
environmental events and the internal, intervening events
what were Tolemans most important intervening variables?
Cognitive, mental in nature