What is self concept?
refers to a conceptual system made up one’s thought and attitudes about oneself. Typically includes thoughts about such things as: one’s physical being and behaviours, one’s social roles and relationships and one’s spiritual/political/internal characteristics.
When does the self concept begin to develop?
From 2-6 months of age, when infants learn to distinguish themselves from the external environment. Early notions of self are relatively simplistic.
What is self recognition?
involves the awareness of one’s own existence. Becomes more noticeable around 8 months of age.
Describe the shopping cart task
Around 18-20 months, baby has to push a shopping cart to their mom but attached to this cart below their feet is a mat. They are standing on it which means it will not move if they try to push it, if they realized their body weight was preventing it from moving they had a concept of self recognition. 18 months wouldn’t realize it
What do we see around 24 months (in terms of self recognition)?
Self conscious emotions and language use
What do we see around 30 months (in terms of self recognition)?
Children recognize their own photograph. Autobiographical memory develops
how do 3-4 year olds describe themselves?
Concrete observable characteristics related to physical attributes and abilities. Talk about possessions, preferences. As we get older we continue to talk about these things but it gets more sophisticated.
How do slightly older children (elementary school) describe themselves?
include psychological traits (e.g., smart). make mention of social groups. Become more specific as a result of making comparisons. Become increasingly influenced by relationships as well as their perceived evaluations from others
Into adolescence, conception of the self continue to change, how would they describe themselves?
Abstract characteristics. Attitudes (i love art) , religious or political beliefs, variability depending on the context of who is around. A clearer awareness of their future selves.
Why does an identity crisis occur during adolescence?
Formal operational thinking develops, individuals start to see themselves as possessing specific personality traits that endure across time and situations, a more systematic and integrated sense of self emerge, society pressures them to become useful contributors
What takes place during this crisis?
A lot of thinking about one’s future careers and future social relationships. Trying out different identities is common
Self absorption (adolescent egocentrism) is common during this time period as evidenced by
Imaginary audience (the belief that everyone is paying attention to you) The personal fable (thinking that no one goes through the same experience) The illusion of invulnerabilty (not susceptible to the same risks and dangers that other people are. These become less common as self identity is developed
James Marcia theory of identity development, what are the 4 statuses he proposed?
Identity achievement, identity Moratorium, Identity diffusion and Identity foreclosure.
Difference between Eriksons stages and Marcia’s statuses
Marcia’s four statuses were not linear (not necessarily in a fixed order
How is James Marcia’s stages defined?
Defined in terms of the presence or absence of a decision-making period (crisis) and the extent of personal investment (commitment).
What is identity achievement?
high degree of commitment and a high degree of exploration: a crisis has been resolved and a commitment has been made to a particular identity. Considered a completion of the moratorium status.
What is identity Moratorium?
Low commitment and high (active) exploration. Someone who is experiening a crisis and searching for an identity. Individuals may try many different things as they seek to discover their identities, can result in conflict.
What is identity foreclosure?
High commitment with low (or no) exploration. Can occur when parents hand down their traditions and/or commitments leaving the adolescent without a conscious choice. May result in later resentment
What is identity diffusion?
Low exploration and low commitment. An individual may not think about a particular identity unless faced with a crisis or are somehow compelled to adopt one
Do individuals reach the achievement status for all areas of their lives at the same time?
Occupation, religion, politics etc. may be reached at different points in time individuals may revisit statuses at later points in life (e.g., career change)