Why are emotions useful?
Emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environments (functional). For example, Fear leads to avoiding danger (increased attn.), happiness strengthens relationships. Understanding and displaying emotions is an important part of social interactions.
What is emotional intelligence?
it is being able to motivate oneself and persist in the face of frustration, control impulses and delay gratification, identify and understand one’s own and other feelings. Regulate one’s moods. regulate the expression of emotion in social interaction.
Emotion intelligence is by some to be a better predictor than IQ of how well people do in life, what is the evidence for this?
Mischel et al., (studied) preschoolers ability to delay gratification were found to predict their social, emotional, and academic competence many years later.
What is the definition of basic emotions?
They are universal and consist of a subjective feeling, physiological change and an overt behaviour.
List the basic emotions
Joy, anger, surprise, interest, disgust, sadness and fear
How can we tell when newborns start to feel these basic emotions?
Newborns are said to only feel pleasure and distress, but by 8-9 months they feel all basic emotions. We can tell they are feeling them by the clues provided by their overt facial expressions.
what is a rudimentary smile?
Meaning of infant smiles appear to change with age. Rudimentary smiles are in response to full stomach or soothing touch, smiles tend to be caused by internal factors and are not social.
What are social smiles?
Occur most often when interacting with main caregiver, can be directed to others as early as 6 to 7 weeks of age. at about 3 or4 months infants laugh and smile during a variety of activities. at around 7 months infants smile at familiar faces.
When are negative emotions first seen?
They emerge from distress and are typically seen between 4 to 6 months of age. Anger also intensifies during this period, it is often seen when someone interferes with their goal
When does fear emerge?
it emerges around 6 months, can be seen in response to unknown adults- stranger wariness
What factors effect stranger wariness?
Caregiver’s behaviour, Strangers behaviour, infant separation from caregiver, familiarity of setting
why does stranger wariness develop? (the two approaches)
Cognitive developmental approach: its an outgrowth of cognitive and perceptual development, stable schemas for familiar caregivers, unfamiliar face now becomes frightening
and the evolutionary approach: adaptive to fear strange people and situations since they often signalled danger.
Describe separation anxiety
It refers to feelings of distress that children, especially infants and toddlers, experience when they are separated from individuals to who they are attached.
When does separation anxiety occur?
Tends to increase from around 8 months-14 and then begins to decrease.
What are the complex emotions? (referred to as self conscious emotions)
Emotions such as shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy and pride. These emerge around 18-24 months
What is the rouge test?
Children have a red mark on their forehead and are shown themselves in a mirror, if they wipe off the red mark then it is clear that they recognize themselves in the mirror
When can infants begin recognizing and identifying facial expressions?
By 4-6 months, infants can identify facial expressions associated with different emotions, they often match emotional tone of caregiver
What is social referencing?
An ability found in 9-12 month year olds, when they look in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments they look to caregivers for cues on how to interpret the situation
Infants can use cues from strangers as well, describe a study that tested this.
Repacholi (1998) 14-18 months infants start using cues from strangers. 2 different versions of this study but in both there were 2 boxes with objects concealed inside, the infant does not lookinside bu they get to see the experimenter look in the box and react. One box experimenter displays happy reaction and the other box experimenter displays disgust, infants were then allowed to interact with the boxes and significantly greater percentage of infants chose the “happy box” though some did interact with the disgust box.
What age do children understand that people can have complex, mixed feelings?
At around age 8, their understanding of emotions becomes much more sophisticated
What are display rules?
There are informal, culturally specific guidelines about what emotions are appropriate for a given situation, based on the occasion and/or the people there
What does appropriate regulation of emotions entail?
Managing our feelings, our physiological reactions associated with feelings, emotion related cognitions and emotion related behaviour.
What age does regulation of emotions begin?
it begins very early, 4-6 month olds will typically look away when they encounter something frightening or confusing. Infants will move toward their caregiver when afraid. Children who dont regulate their emotions have problems with their peers.
What changes do we see across the early years?
Increase in being able to rely on themselves.
increase in the ability to rely on language to manage their emotional arousal.
increase in the maturation of the neurological system.
increase in adults expectations of children in terms of their emotion regulation.
What changes are there in children’s negative emotions control strategies?
Younger children use behavior strategies, distracting themselves with play and older children employ cognitive strategies, mentally distracting themselves from negative events or trying to see things in a positive light.
What is temperament?
Behavioural styles that are fairly stable across situations and are biologically based; stable individual individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reactions, activity level, attention and emotional self-regulation
Thomas and Cess determined that there is variability in terms of temperament through a study explain it
it was a new york longitudinal study, 141 people were followed from birth to adulthood. Used interviews and observations to collect data, they identified nine dimensions. Most significant finding was that temperament is stable across the life span.
What are some of the dimensions identified by Thomas and Cess?
Activity level: ratio of active periods to inactive ones
Attention span and persistence: amount of time devoted to an activity such as watching a mobile or playing with a toy.
Rhythmicity: regularity of body functions, such as sleep, wakefulness, hunger and excitation
What three general patterns of temperament did NYLS suggest?
Easy child, difficult child and slow to warm up child
Describe easy child
Has regular patterns of eating, sleeping, and toileting; adapts to new situations and shows low intensity reactions (about 40% of babies show this pattern)
Describe difficult child temperament
Has less predictable schedules, withdraws from new situations, and reacts intensely to stimuli (about 10% of infants show this)
Describe slow to warm up temperament
Often unhappy, adapt more quickly than difficult category (about 15% of infants show this pattern).
What is rothbart’s theory of temperament with three dimensions?
Surgency/extraversion: refers to the extent to which a child is generally happy, active, vocal, and regularly seeks interesting stimulation.
Negative affect: refers to the extent to which a child is angry, fearful, frustrated, shy and not easily soothed.
Effortful control: refers to the extent to which a child can focus attention, is not readily distracted and can inhibit responses
These three dimensions are not independent, infants who are high on effortful control and surgency/extraversion tend to be low on negative affect.
what evidence is there for genetic influence on temperament?
MZ twins are more alike in terms of temperament than DZ twins
What evidence is there for an environmental influence?
infants are more likely to develop intense, difficult temperaments when caregivers are abrupt and lack confidence. Sensitive parenting is beneficial, these kinds of findings raise the issue of the importance of the fit bw a child and his/her parents.
What is goodness of fit?
Thomas and chess’ notion that development is likely to be optimized when parents’ child rearing practices are sensitively adapted to their child’s temperamental characteristics
What happens when a poor fit exists?
The outcome is distorted development and maladjustment (dandelion and orchid simile)
What does temperament predict?
Children’s cognitive (persistence related to IQ) and social functioning (children who are more shy might have difficulty interacting with peers)
Who is Harry Harlow? what did he do?
Harry harlow did experimental work with rhesus monkeys. The infant monkeys were kept safe and well fed but were deprived of all early social interaction. Those that were deprived had notable negative outcomes. Concluded that social and emotional development is rooted in early social interactions with adults.
What is attachment? (bowlby’s attachment theory)
Attachment is an enduring social bond between a child and a primary caregiver, the idea is that there is a caring nurturing caregiver that is meeting the needs of the child.
What is a secure base?
it is an attachment figures presence, Bowlby posited that a secure base provides children sense of security that makes environmental exploration possible.
Explain the strong evolutionary perspective in Bowlby’s theory of attachment
Children are seen as biologically pre disposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival. Also influenced by ethological theory (e.g., Lorenz).
Attachment is seen as taking place in four stages, what are they?
Pre-attachment (0-6 weeks) Attachment in the making (6 weeks to 6-8 months) True attachment (6-8 month to 18 months) and reciprocal relationships (18+ months)
Describe pre attachment
Reflexes and cues to keep caregiver nearby or to call to them (e.g., crying and social smiles
Describe attachment in the making
Babies begin to differentiate bw familiar caregivers ands strangers (stranger wariness begins). Babies show more positive responses to caregivers and babies begin to develop a sense of trust in their caregivers.
Describe true attachment
the attachment figure has been identified as special (have special status). Proximity seeking (especially when scared or stressed). Separation anxiety, and attachment figure serves as safe base
Describe reciprocal relationships
Cognitive/ language developments enable better understanding and predicting of caregivers behaviour. A more mutually regulated relationship gradually emerges–> decline in separation anxiety
Who is Mary Ainsworth?
She worked with Bowlby and extended and tested his ideas. She developed a lab procedure to assess infants attachment to their primary caregivers, called the strange situation procedure
Briefly describe the strange situation procedure
Child is exposed to eight episodes, including two separations and reunions with the caregiver and interactions with a stranger when alone and when the caregiver is in the room and she identified four attachment categories based on this
What is secure attachment?
at separation: baby is often (but not always) upset. Reunion: baby can be calmed by caregiver, seeks them out. Infant or child has a high quality, relatively unambivalent relationship with the attachment figure. • In the strange situation, the infant may be upset when the caregiver leaves, but is likely to be happy to see the caregiver return, recovering quickly from distress. They can use caregivers as a secure base for exploration. About 60-65% of north American children are securely attached
Describe resistant (or ambivalent) attachment
Separation: baby is upset. Reunion: baby cannot be calmed by the caregiver, resists her/him. Infants or children are clingy and stay close to their caregiver rather than explore. cannot be readily comforted by strangers (10-15%)
Describe Avoidant attachment
Separation: baby seems to be fine and indifferent. Reunion: baby actively ignores caregiver. Infants seem indifferent towards their caregiver. If the child does become upset when alone they are easily comforted by a stranger (20%)
Disorganized/ Disoriented attachment
Separation: baby is confused. Reunion: baby is confused. In the strange situation they seem to have no consistent way of coping with the stress. Behavior is often confused or contradictory and they often seem disoriented. (5-10%)
what is an internal working model of attachment? (Bowlby)
Children develop a mental representation of the self, of attachment figures and of relationships in general. This guides children’s interactions with caregivers and other people in infancy. This model affects how the individual deals with relations across the lifespan.
What factors determine quality of attachment?
Parental sensitivity (lots of empirical support cross culturally). Demonstrations of sensitivity: consistently responsive caregiving when children are distressed/upset, and helping children to engage in learning by providing an appropriate amount of guidance and supervision.
What are qualities of people who were securely attached as infants?
They have close, more positive relationships with peers and better romanticc relationships and emotional health in adolesence. Earn higher grades and are more involved in school. Toddlers who were securely attached are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior (comforting someone who is sad).
Evidence for attachment style being fairly stable
Longitudinal study (20 years): 72% of participants remained in the same attachment category. keep in mind that parents are unlikely to have fundamentally changed.
Can attachment style change?
Yes, for the worse with major negative life events or for the better when parents grow into their role and have strong social support.