What is the system’s view of families?
Parents and children influence each other and the family system is infleunced by other individuals and institutions.
What are the two primary dimensions of parenting?
Warmth and resposiveness; High empathy, low responsiveness. Control, strict rules and routine vs. passive rules and routine. High levels of warmth and responsiveness and moderate levels of control are associated with the most positive outcomes
What does control involve?
it involves setting age appropriate standards, consistent enforcements of rules and good communication.
What is authoritative parenting style?
Is associated with positive outcomes, High control and high warmth but not extreme levels of either.
What is authoritarian parenting style?
Tend to have less positive outcomes, high control, low warmth. Self doubt and agression among children raised by authoritarians
What is permissive parenting style?
high warmth but low control, loving and endearing but no rules, children with have less self control and inhibtion
What is uninvolved parenting style?
low control, low involvement/warmth, largely neglected and this is associated with negative outcomes.
Do parenting styles vary across culture?
Yes, views about proper amount of parental warmth and control vary by culture. Parents also vary WITHIN cultures.
What is direct instruction?
Telling children what to do, when and why
What is counter imitation?
Learning (through observation) what should not be done
What is a negative reinforcement trap?
Parents often unknowingly reinforce behaviours they want to prevent put their lunchbox on the counter and they don’t want too and they whine and complain until you give up and tell them to go away, the behavior gets reinforced because you’ve taken that chore away from them)
what does punishment need to be effective?
Administered by a person with whom the child has a warm affectionate relationship. Accompanied by an explanation and suggestions for future ways of behaving and administered properly and consistently.
What disadvantages does punishment have?
Behaviors are only stopped temporarily, child may be too angry or upset to learn alternative behavior and child may imitate agressive behaviours of parent with peers and younger siblings, leading to behavior problems
Explain time out vs. time in
A time out is sitting in a corner alone to reflect on your actions, and a time in is taking the time to have a conversation with a child and provide an explanation for what they did wrong.
How does chronic conflict between parents affect children?
Makes children worry about the stability of the family, often impacts the parent-child relationship, leaves the parents with less energy/time for high quality parenting.